High-performance P2-phase Na2/3Mn0. 8Fe0. 1Ti0. 1O2 cathode material for ambient-temperature sodium-ion batteries

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American Chemical Society
High-performance Mn-rich P2-phase Na2/3Mn0.8Fe0.1Ti0.1O2 is synthesized by a ceramic method, and its stable electrochemical performance is demonstrated. 23Na solid-state NMR confirms the substitution of Ti4+ ions in the transition metal oxide layer and very fast Na+ mobility in the interlayer space. The pristine electrode delivers a second charge/discharge capacity of 146.57/144.16 mA·h·g–1 and retains 95.09% of discharge capacity at the 50th cycle within the voltage range 4.0–2.0 V at C/10. At 1C, the reversible specific capacity still reaches 99.40 mA·h·g–1, and capacity retention of 87.70% is achieved from second to 300th cycle. In addition, the moisture-exposed electrode reaches reversible capacities of more than 130 and 80 mA·h·g–1 for C/10 and 1C, respectively, with excellent capacity retention. The correlation between overall electrochemical performance of both electrodes and crystal structural characteristics are investigated by neutron powder diffraction. The stability of pristine electrode’s crystallographic structure during the charge/discharge process has been investigated by in situ X-ray diffraction, where only a solid solution reaction occurs within the given voltage range except for a small biphasic mechanism occurring at or below 2.2 V during the discharge process. The relatively small substitution (20%) at the transition metal site leads to stable electrochemical performance, which is in part derived from the structural stability during electrochemical cycling. Therefore, the small cosubstitution (e.g., with Ti and Fe) route suggests a possible new scope for the design of sodium-ion battery electrodes that are suitable for long-term cycling. © 2015 American Chemical Society
Oxides, Crystal lattices, Electrodes, Transition elements, Electrochemistry, Neutron diffraction, Radioisotope batteries
Han, M. H., Gonzalo, E., Sharma, N., López del Amo, J. M., Armand, M., Avdeev, M., Saiz Garitaonandia, J. J., & Rojo, T. (2015). High-performance P2-phase Na2/3Mn0. 8Fe0. 1Ti0. 1O2 cathode material for ambient-temperature sodium-ion batteries. Chemistry of Materials, 28, 1, 106–116. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b03276