Browsing by Author "Sharma, N"
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- ItemA (3 + 3)-dimensional “hypercubic” oxide-ionic conductor: type ii bi2o3–nb2o5(ACS Publications, 2013-04-09) Ling, CD; Schmid, S; Blanchard, PER; Petříček, V; McIntyre, GJ; Sharma, N; Maljuk, A; Yaremchenko, AA; Kharton, VV; Gutmann, MJ; Withers, RLThe high-temperature cubic form of bismuth oxide, δ-Bi2O3, is the best intermediate-temperature oxide-ionic conductor known. The most elegant way of stabilizing δ-Bi2O3 to room temperature, while preserving a large part of its conductivity, is by doping with higher valent transition metals to create wide solid-solutions fields with exceedingly rare and complex (3 + 3)-dimensional incommensurately modulated ?hypercubic? structures. These materials remain poorly understood because no such structure has ever been quantitatively solved and refined, due to both the complexity of the problem and a lack of adequate experimental data. We have addressed this by growing a large (centimeter scale) crystal using a novel refluxing floating-zone method, collecting high-quality single-crystal neutron diffraction data, and treating its structure together with X-ray diffraction data within the superspace symmetry formalism. The structure can be understood as an ?inflated? pyrochlore, in which corner-connected NbO6 octahedral chains move smoothly apart to accommodate the solid solution. While some oxide vacancies are ordered into these chains, the rest are distributed throughout a continuous three-dimensional network of wide δ-Bi2O3-like channels, explaining the high oxide-ionic conductivity compared to commensurately modulated phases in the same pseudobinary system. © 2013, American Chemical Society.
- ItemAlkali metal-modified P2 NaxMnO2: crystal structure and application in sodium-ion batteries(American Chemical Society, 2020-08-18) Sehrawat, D; Rawal, A; Cheong, S; Avdeev, M; Ling, CD; Kimpton, JA; Sharma, NSodium-ion batteries (NIBs) are an emerging alternative to lithium-ion batteries because of the abundance of sodium resources and their potentially lower cost. Here we report the Na0.7MnO2 solid state synthesized at 1000 °C that shows two distinct phases; one adopts hexagonal P2-type P63/mmc space group symmetry, and the other adopts orthorhombic Pbma space group symmetry. The phase ratio of P2 to the orthorhombic phase is 55.0(5):45.0(4). A single-phase P2 structure is found to form at 1000 °C after modification with alkali metals Rb and Cs, while the K-modified form produces an additional minor impurity. The modification is the addition of the alkali elements during synthesis that do not appear to be doped into the crystal structure. As a cathode for NIBs, parent Na0.7MnO2 shows a second charge/discharge capacity of 143/134 mAh g–1, K-modified Na0.7MnO2 a capacity of 184/178 mAh g–1, Rb-modified Na0.9MnO2 a capacity of 159/150 mAh g–1, and Cs-modified Na0.7MnO2 a capacity of 171/163 mAh g–1 between 1.5 and 4.2 V at a current density of 15 mA g–1. The parent Na0.7MnO2 is compared with alkali metal (K, Rb, and Cs)-modified NaxMnO2 in terms of surface morphology using scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, 23Na solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in terms of electrochemical performance and structural electrochemical evolution using in situ or operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction. © 2020 American Chemical Society
- ItemBiphasic P2/O3-Na2/3Li0.18Mn0.8Fe0.2O2: a structural investigation(Royal Society of Chemistry, 2020-12-22) Stansby, JH; Avdeev, M; Brand, HEA; Gonzalo, E; Drewett, NE; Ortiz-Vitoriano, N; Sharma, N; Rojo, TThe P2/O3 layered oxide system is thought to benefit from a synergistic enhancement, resulting from the presence of both phases, which makes it a promising cathode material for Na-ion battery applications. Here, biphasic P2/O3-Na2/3Li0.18Mn0.8Fe0.2O2 is investigated via a combination of neutron and X-ray scattering techniques. Neutron diffraction data indicates that the O3 alkali metal site is fully occupied by Li. Real time operando X-ray diffraction data shows the structural evolution of the composite electrode – at the charged state there is no evidence of O2, OP4 or Z phases. The results presented herein provide new insight into site preference of Li in biphasic materials and highlights the value of utilizing multiple phases to achieve high performance layered cathode materials for sodium battery applications.© The Royal Society of Chemistry 2021
- ItemBr-doped Li4Ti5O12 and composite TiO2 anodes for Li-ion batteries: synchrotron x-ray and in situ neutron diffraction studies(John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2011-09-01) Du, GD; Sharma, N; Peterson, VK; Kimpton, JA; Jia, DZ; Guo, ZPSynchrotron X-ray diffraction data were used to determine the phase purity and re-evaluate the crystal-structure of Li4Ti5O12-xBrx electrode materials (where the synthetic chemical inputs are x = 0.05, 0.10 0.20, 0.30). A maximum of x′ = 0.12 Br, where x′ is the Rietveld-refined value, can be substituted into the crystal structure with at least 2% rutile TiO2 forming as a second phase. Higher Br concentrations induced the formation of a third, presumably Br-rich, phase. These materials function as composite anodes that contain mixtures of TiO2, Li4Ti5O12-xBrx, and a Br-rich third, unknown, phase. The minor quantities of the secondary phases in combination with Li4Ti5O12-xBrx where x′ ∼ 0.1 were found to correspond to the optimum in electrochemical properties, while larger quantities of the secondary phases contributed to the degradation of the performance. In situ neutron diffraction of a composite anatase TiO2/Li4Ti5O12 anode within a custom-built battery was used to determine the electrochemical function of the TiO2 component. The Li4Ti5O12 component was found to be electrochemically active at lower voltages (1.5 V) relative to TiO2 (1.7 V). This enabled Li insertion/extraction to be tuned through the choice of voltage range in both components of this composite or in the anatase TiO2 phase only. The use of composite materials may facilitate the development of multi-component electrodes where different active materials can be cycled in order to tune power output. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.
- ItemCapacity enhancement of the quenched Li-Ni-Mn-Co oxide high-voltage Li-ion battery positive electrode(Elsevier, 2017-03-23) Jena, A; Lee, CH; Pang, WK; Peterson, VK; Sharma, N; Wang, CC; Song, YF; Lin, CC; Chang, H; Liu, RSLi-rich metal oxides, regarded as a high-voltage composite cathode, is currently one of the hottest positive electrode material for lithium-ion batteries, due to its high-capacity and high-energy performance. The crystallography, phase composition and morphology can be altered by synthesis parameters, which can influence drastically the capacity and cycling performance. In this work, we demonstrate Li1.207Ni0.127Mn0.54Co0.127O2, obtained by a co-precipitation method, exhibits super-high specific capacity up to 298 mAh g−1 and excellent capacity retention of ∼100% up to 50 cycles. Using neutron powder diffraction and transmission X-ray microscopy, we have found that the cooling-treatments applied after sintering during synthesis are crucially important in controlling the phase composition and morphology of the cathodes, thereby influencing the electrochemical performance. Unique spherical microstructure, larger lattice, and higher content of Li-rich monoclinic component can be achieved in the rapid quenching process, whereas severe particle cracking along with the smaller lattice and lower monoclinic component content is obtained when natural cooling of the furnace is applied. Combined with electrochemical impedance spectra, a plausible mechanism is described for the poorer specific capacity and cycling stability of the composite cathodes. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.
- ItemChromium segregation in Cr-doped TiO2 (rutile): impact of oxygen activity(Springer Nature, 2019-01-04) Rahman, KA; Sharma, N; Atanacio, AJ; Bak, T; Wachsman, ED; Moffit, M; Nowotny, JThis work considers the effect of chromium surface segregation for polycrystalline Cr-doped TiO2 on surface vs. bulk defect disorder. It is shown that annealing of Cr-doped TiO2 (0.04 at% Cr) in the gas phase of variable oxygen activity at 1273 K results in a gradual transition in the valence of chromium at the surface from predominantly Cr3+ species in reduced conditions, p(O2) = 10−12 Pa, to comparable concentrations of both Cr3+ and Cr6+ species in oxidising conditions, p(O2) = 105 Pa. The reported data is considered in terms of defect equilibria leading to the formation of positively and negatively charged chromium in both the cation sub-lattice and interstitial sites. The derived theoretical models represent the effect of oxygen activity on the surface charge and the resulting electric field leading to migration mechanism of charged chromium species. © 2019 Springer Nature
- ItemCoexistence of ferroelectricity and magnetism in transition-metal-doped n = 3 aurivillius phases(Institute of Physics, 2008-01-16) Sharma, N; Kennedy, BJ; Elcombe, MM; Liu, Y; Ling, CDMagnetic-cation-doped three-layer Aurivillius phases Bi2-xSr2+x(Nb/Ta)(2+x)M1-xO12, x approximate to 0.5 and M = Ru4+, Ir4+ or Mn4+, are shown to have the same orthorhombic space group symmetry and similar dielectric and ferroelectric properties as their (non-magnetic) ferroelectric parent compounds Bi2-xSr2+xNb2+xTi1-xO12, x = 0, 0.5. The magnetic-cation-doped phases also show evidence for short-range ferromagnetic (M = Mn) and antiferromagnetic (M = Ru and Ir) exchange, demonstrating the potential of these naturally layered phases as templates for multiferroic (magnetoelectric) materials. © 2008, Institute of Physics
- ItemComparison of the so-called CGR and NCR cathodes in commercial lithium-ion batteries using in situ neutron powder diffraction(Cambridge University Press, 2014-12-18) Alam, M; Hanley, TL; Pang, WK; Peterson, VK; Sharma, NThe evolution of the 003 reflection of the layered Li(Ni,Co,Mn)O2 (CGR) and Li(Ni,Co,Al)O2 (NCR) cathodes in commercial 18650 lithium-ion batteries during charge/discharge were determined using in situ neutron powder diffraction. The 003 reflection is chosen as it is the stacking axis of the layered structure and shows the largest change during charge/discharge. The comparison between these two cathodes shows that the NCR cathode exhibits an unusual contraction near the charged state and during the potentiostatic step, where the potentiostatic step is recommended by the manufacturer. This feature is not shown to the same degree by the CGR cathode. The behavior is likely related to the compositions of these cathodes, the amount of Li/Ni site mixing and the presence of Al or Mn. © 2014 International Centre for Diffraction Data. Published by Cambridge University Press
- ItemA comprehensive picture of the current rate dependence of the structural evolution of P2-Na2/3Fe2/3Mn1/3O2(Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015-09-02) Sharma, N; Han, MH; Pramudita, JC; Gonzalo, E; Brand, HEA; Rojo, TCathodes that feature a layered structure are attractive reversible sodium hosts for ambient temperature sodium-ion batteries which may meet the demands for large-scale energy storage devices. However, crystallographic data on these electrodes are limited to equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium information. Here we report the current-dependent structural evolution of the P2-Na2/3Fe2/3Mn1/3O2 electrode during charge/discharge at different current rates. The structural evolution is highly dependent on the current rate used, e.g., there is significant disorder in the layered structure near the charged state at slower rates and following the cessation of high-current rate cycling. At moderate and high rates this disordered structure does not appear. In addition, at the slower rates the disordered structure persists during subsequent discharge. In all rates examined, we show the presence of an additional two-phase region that has not been observed before, where both phases maintain P63/mmc symmetry but with varying sodium contents. Notably, most of the charge at each current rate is transferred via P2 (P63/mmc) phases with varying sodium contents. This illustrates that the high-rate performance of these electrodes is in part due to the preservation of the P2 structure and the disordered phases appear predominantly at lower rates. Such current-dependent structural information is critical to understand how electrodes function in batteries which can be used to develop optimised charge/discharge routines and better materials. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. This article is Open Access.
- ItemConsequences of long-term water exposure for bulk crystal structure and surface composition/chemistry of nickel-rich layered oxide materials for Li-ion batteries(Elsevier, 2020-06-10) Andersen, HL; Cheung, EA; Avdeev, M; Maynard-Casely, HE; Abraham, DP; Sharma, NWater exposure of layered nickel-rich transition metal oxide electrodes, widely used in high-energy lithium-ion batteries, has detrimental effects on the electrochemical performance, which complicates electrode handling and prevents implementation of environmentally benign aqueous processing procedures. Elucidating the degradation mechanisms in play may help rationally mitigate/circumvent key challenges. Here, the bulk structural consequences of long-term (>2.5 years) deuterated water (D2O) exposure of intercalation materials with compositions LixNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523) and LixNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 (NCM811) are studied by neutron powder diffraction (NPD). Detailed inspection of the NPD data reveals gradual formation of a secondary crystalline phase in all exposed samples, not previously reported for this system. This unknown phase forms faster in liquid- compared to vapor-exposed compounds. Structural modelling of the NPD data shows a stable level of Li/Ni anti-site defects and does not indicate any significant changes in lattice parameters or hydrogen-lithium (D+/Li+) exchange in the structure. Consequently, the secondary phase formation must take place via transformation rather than modification of the parent material. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data indicate formation of LiHCO3/Li2CO3 at the surface and a Li-deficient oxide in the sub-surface region of the pristine compounds, and the presence of adsorbed water and transition metal hydroxides at the exposed sample surfaces. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.
- ItemCorrelating cycling history with structural evolution in commercial 26650 batteries using in operando neutron powder diffraction(Elsevier, 2017-03-01) Goonetilleke, D; Pramudita, JC; Hagan, M; Al Bahri, OK; Pang, WK; Peterson, VK; Groot, J; Berg, H; Sharma, NEx situ and time-resolved in operando neutron powder diffraction (NPD) has been used to study the structural evolution of the graphite negative electrode and LiFePO4 positive electrode within ANR26650M1A commercial batteries from A123 Systems, in what to our knowledge is the first reported NPD study investigating a 26650-type battery. Batteries with different and accurately-known electrochemical and storage histories were studied, enabling the tell-tale signs of battery degradation to be elucidated using NPD. The ex-situ NPD data revealed that the intensity of the graphite/lithiated graphite (LixC6 or LiyC) reflections was affected by battery history, with lower lithiated graphite (LiC12) reflection intensities typically corresponding to more abused batteries. This indicates that the lithiation of graphite is less progressed in more abused batteries, and hence these batteries have lower capacities. In operando NPD allows the rate of structural evolution in the battery electrode materials to be correlated to the applied current. Interestingly, the electrodes exhibit different responses to the applied current that depend on the battery cycling history, with this particularly evident for the negative electrode. Therefore, this work illustrates how NPD can be used to correlate a battery history with electrode structure. Crown Copyright ©2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.
- ItemCrystal structures and phase transitions in a-site deficient perovskites Ln1/3TaO3(American Chemical Society, 2008-11-11) Zhou, QD; Saines, PJ; Sharma, N; Ting, J; Kennedy, BJ; Zhang, Z; Withers, RL; Wallwork, KSThe synthesis and structures of the perovskites Ln1/3TaO3 are described. As the size of the Ln cation is reduced, the compounds display a sequence of structure: P4/mmm/La → Cmmm/Ce−Gd → Pmma/Tb, Dy → Pmc21/Ho, Er. Although apparently tetragonal in P4/mmm, electron diffraction patterns of Tm1/3TaO3 reveal this has a complex incommensurate structure. Likewise Gd1/3TaO3 appears metrically tetragonal, but electron diffraction and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction demonstrate this is actually orthorhombic. The suppression of the spontaneous orthorhombic strain in Gd1/3TaO3 is thought to be due to the proximity to the first-order Cmmm−Pmma transition. Variable temperature studies show both Tb1/3TaO3 and Dy1/3TaO3 undergo a first-order Cmmm−Pmma transition upon heating. © 2008, American Chemical Society
- ItemCrystal structures of orthorhombic, hexagonal, and cubic compounds of the Sm(x)Yb(2−x)TiO5 series(Elsevier, 2014-05) Aughterson, RD; Lumpkin, GR; Reyes, MDL; Sharma, N; Ling, CD; Gault, B; Smith, KL; Avdeev, M; Cairney, JMA series of single phase compounds with nominal stoichiometry Sm(x)Yb(2−x)TiO5 (x=2, 1.4, 1, 0.6, and 0) have been successfully fabricated to generate a range of crystal structures covering the most common polymorphs previously discovered in the Ln2TiO5 series (Ln=lanthanides and yttrium). Four of the five samples have not been previously fabricated in bulk, single phase form so their crystal structures are refined and detailed using powder synchrotron and single crystal x-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Based on the phase information from diffraction data, there are four crystal structure types in this series; orthorhombic Pnma, hexagonal P63/mmc, cubic (pyrochlore-like) Fd-3m and cubic (fluorite-like) Fm-3m. The cubic materials show modulated structures with variation between long and short range ordering and the variety of diffraction techniques were used to describe these complex crystal structure types. © 2014, Elsevier Inc.
- ItemCurrent-dependent electrode lattice fluctuations and anode phase evolution in a lithium-ion battery investigated by in situ neutron diffraction(Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd, 2013-01-01) Sharma, N; Peterson, VKThis work uses real-time in situ neutron powder diffraction to study the electrode lattice response and anode phase evolution in a commercial lithium-ion battery. We show that the time-resolved lattice response of the LixCoO2 cathode and LixC6 anode under non-equilibrium conditions varies proportionally with the applied current, where higher current results in faster structural change. Higher current also reduces the LixCoO2 cathode c lattice parameter and the LiC6 quantity that forms at the charged state of the battery, both of which are related to lower battery capacity. At the anode, we find that the LixC6 phase evolution is current-dependent. © 2013, Elsevier Ltd.
- ItemDirect evidence of concurrent solid-solution and two-phase reactions and the nonequilibrium structural eEvolution of LiFePO(4)(American Chemical Society, 2012-05-09) Sharma, N; Guo, XW; Du, GD; Guo, ZP; Wang, JZ; Wang, ZX; Peterson, VKLithium-ion batteries power many portable devices and in the future are likely to play a significant role in sustainable-energy systems for transportation and the electrical grid. LiFePO(4) is a candidate cathode material for second-generation lithium-ion batteries, bringing a high rate capability to this technology. LiFePO(4) functions as a cathode where delithiation occurs via either a solid-solution or a two-phase mechanism, the pathway taken being influenced by sample preparation and electrochemical conditions. The details of the delithiation pathway and the relationship between the two-phase and solid-solution reactions remain controversial. Here we report, using real-time in situ neutron powder diffraction, the simultaneous occurrence of solid-solution and two-phase reactions after deep discharge in nonequilibrium conditions. This work is an example of the experimental investigation of nonequilibrium states in a commercially available LiFePO(4) cathode and reveals the concurrent occurrence of and transition between the solid-solution and two-phase reactions. © 2012, American Chemical Society.
- ItemDopant and current rate dependence on the structural evolution of P2-Na2/3Mn0.8Zn0.1M0.1O2 (M=Cu, Ti): an operando study(Wiley, 2021-06-24) Stansby, JH; Sharma, N; Avdeev, M; Brand, HEA; Gonzalo, E; Drewett, NE; Ortiz-Vitoriano, N; Rojo, TVariable current rate operando XRD experiments were performed on the P2- Na2/3Mn0.8Zn0.1Cu0.1O2 composition, which displays promising electrochemical properties. The data reveals the reversible formation of a new and previously undetected ordering reflection upon extraction of Na-ions, and that small compositional alterations may dramatically impact structural evolution and electrochemical properties. For P2- Na2/3Mn0.8Zn0.1Cu0.1O2 at all current rates examined (25, 50 and 100 mA.g−1), comparable structural evolution on charge is observed, but the structural evolution on discharge is shown to be significantly influenced by the current applied during the preceding charge step. For both P2- Na2/3Mn0.8Zn0.1Cu0.1O2 and P2- Na2/3Mn0.8Zn0.1Ti0.1O2 comparable structural evolution is observed only at a slower current rate of 25 mA.g−1. Overall, the structural evolution of these layered materials is shown to be dependent on the cycling history, highlighting the significance of applied current rate during cycling, especially during the initial cycle. © 2021 The Authors.
- ItemElectrochemically activated solid synthesis: an alternative solid-state synthetic method(Royal Society of Chemistry, 2018-09-29) Liu, JN; Andersen, HL; Al Bahri, OK; Bhattacharyya, S; Rawal, A; Brand, HEA; Sharma, NSolid-state synthesis is one of the most common synthetic methods in chemistry and is extensively used in lab-scale syntheses of advanced functional materials to ton-scale production of chemical compounds. It generally requires at least one or several high temperature and/or high-pressure steps, which makes production of compounds via solid-state methods very energy and time intensive. Consequently, there is a persistent economic and environmental incentive to identify less energy and time consuming synthetic pathways. Here, we present an alternative solid-state synthetic method, which utilizes structural changes, induced by an electrochemical "activation" step followed by a thermal treatment step. The method has been used to synthesize a Sc0.67WO4-type phase where Sc0.67WO4 has previously only been obtained at 1400 °C and 4 GPa for 1 h. Through our method the Sc0.67WO4-type phase has been prepared at only 600 °C and ambient pressure. Experimental factors that influence phase formation from the electrochemical perspective are detailed. Overall, the method presented in this work appears to be able to generate the conditions for unusual and new phases to form and thus becomes another tool for synthetic solid-state chemists. This in turn permits the exploration of a larger synthetic parameter space. © 2018 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
- ItemElucidation of the high-voltage phase in the layered sodium ion battery cathode material P3–Na0.5Ni0.25Mn0.75O2(Royal Society of Chemistry, 2020-09-30) Liu, JT; Didier, C; Sale, M; Sharma, N; Guo, ZP; Peterson, VK; Ling, CDThe P3-type layered oxide Na0.5Ni0.25Mn0.75O2 is a promising manganese-rich positive electrode (cathode) material for sodium ion batteries, with a high working voltage of 4.2–2.5 V vs. Na+/Na and a high capacity of over 130 mA h g−1 when cycled at 10 mA g−1. However, its structural evolution during battery cycling – specifically, the nature of the high-voltage phase above 4 V – has never been fully understood, which has hindered efforts to rationally modify and improve its performance. In this work we use in situ neutron diffraction to show that the phase above 4 V is a modification of the intermediate O3 phase from which all sodium has been removed, and which consequently has a dramatically shorter interlayer distance. We label this fully Na-depleted phase O3s, such that the phase evolution with increasing voltage is P3 → O3 → O3s. Having elucidated its structure, we used first-principles calculations of the electronic structure as a function of sodium content to show that reversible oxygen redox plays a key role in the electrochemical activity of this O3s phase above 4 V. We also calculated the energies of oxygen/transition metal vacancies and found that the O3s phase should be relatively stable against their formation. The results will guide future research aimed at understanding and stabilizing the O3s phase, in order to improve the performance and cycling stability of this material in sodium ion batteries. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2020
- ItemEvidence of solid-solution reaction upon lithium insertion into cryptomelane K0.25Mn2O4 material(ACS Publications, 2014-02-05) Pang, WK; Peterson, VK; Sharma, N; Zhang, CF; Guo, ZPCryptomelane-type K0.25Mn2O4 material is prepared via a template-free, one-step hydrothermal method. Cryptomelane K0.25Mn2O4 adopts an I4/m tetragonal structure with a distinct tunnel feature built from MnO6 units. Its structural stability arises from the inherent stability of the MnO6 framework which hosts potassium ions, which in turn permits faster ionic diffusion, making the material attractive for application as a cathode in lithium-ion batteries. Despite this potential use, the phase transitions and structural evolution of cryptomelane during lithiation and delithiation remain unclear. The coexistence of Mn3+ and Mn4+ in the compound during lithiation and delithiation processes induces different levels of Jahn–Teller distortion, further complicating the lattice evolution. In this work, the lattice evolution of the cryptomelane K0.25Mn2O4 during its function as a cathode within a lithium-ion battery is measured in a customized coin cell using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. We find that the lithiation–delithiation of cryptomelane cathode proceeds through a solid-solution reaction, associated with variations of the a and c lattice parameters and a reversible strain effect induced by Jahn–Teller distortion of Mn3+. The lattice parameter changes and the strain are quantified in this work, with the results demonstrating that cryptomelane is a relatively good candidate cathode material for lithium-ion battery use. © 2014, American Chemical Society.
- ItemExpanding the applications of the ilmenite mineral to the preparation of nanostructures: TiO2 nanorods and their photocatalytic properties in the degradation of oxalic acid(Wiley-Blackwell, 2013-01-14) Tao, T; Chen, Y; Zhou, D; Zhang, HZ; Liu, S; Amal, R; Sharma, N; Glushenkov, AMThe mineral ilmenite is one of the most abundant ores in the Earth's crust and it is the main source for the industrial production of bulk titanium oxide. At the same time, methods to convert ilmenite into nanostructures of TiO2 (which are required for new advanced applications, such as solar cells, batteries, and photocatalysts) have not been explored to any significant extent. Herein, we describe a simple and effective method for the preparation of rutile TiO2 nanorods from ball-milled ilmenite. These nanorods have small dimensions (width: 520 nm, length: 50100 nm, thickness: 25 nm) and possess large specific surface areas (up to 97 m2?g-1). Dissolution/hydrolysis/precipitation is proposed as a growth mechanism. The nanorods were found to have attractive photocatalytic properties in the degradation of oxalic acid. Their photocatalytic activity is close to that of the benchmark Degussa P25 material and better than that of a commercial high-surface-area rutile powder. © 2013, Wiley-Blackwell