ANSTO Publications Online

Welcome to the ANSTO Institutional Repository known as APO.

The APO database has been migrated to version 7.5. The functionality has changed, but the content remains the same.

ANSTO Publications Online is a digital repository for publications authored by ANSTO staff since 2007. The Repository also contains ANSTO Publications, such as Reports and Promotional Material. ANSTO publications prior to 2007 continue to be added progressively as they are in identified in the library. ANSTO authors can be identified under a single point of entry within the database. The citation is as it appears on the item, even with incorrect spelling, which is marked by (sic) or with additional notes in the description field.

If items are only held in hardcopy in the ANSTO Library collection notes are being added to the item to identify the Dewey Call number: as DDC followed by the number.

APO will be integrated with the Research Information System which is currently being implemented at ANSTO. The flow on effect will be permission to publish, which should allow pre-prints and post prints to be added where content is locked behind a paywall. To determine which version can be added to APO authors should check Sherpa Romeo. ANSTO research is increasingly being published in open access due mainly to the Council of Australian University Librarians read and publish agreements, and some direct publisher agreements with our organisation. In addition, open access items are also facilitated through collaboration and open access agreements with overseas authors such as Plan S.

ANSTO authors are encouraged to use a CC-BY licence when publishing open access. Statistics have been returned to the database and are now visible to users to show item usage and where this usage is coming from.

 

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Recent Submissions

Item
Differentiating between the d13C signature from environmental conditions and SOM cycling in eastern Australian peat sediments
(Australasian Environmental Isotope Conference, 2022-11-14) Forbes, MS; Cohen, TJ; Marx, SK; Sherborne-Higgins, B; Cadd, H; Francke, A; Cendón, DI; Peterson, MA; Mooney, SD; Constantine, M; Boesl, F; Kobayashi, Y; Mazumder, D
The analysis of stable carbon isotopes is commonly used in Quaternary science to reconstruct the environmental conditions and vegetation contributions to sedimentary sequences. However, the measured d13C signature of the total organic matter (OM) pool can also reflect other complexities within depositional environments. The peats of the Thirlmere Lakes system in the southern section of the Blue Mountains World Heritage Area provides an excellent opportunity to closely scrutinise such d13C dynamics. These deposits are rich in TOC (20-40%) meaning analytical techniques such as 13C-NMR, used to characterise the OM pool, can be applied effectively. Furthermore, the identification of several peat units deposited over the last ~130 ka allows for temporal comparisons. d13C values determined for a 7 m sediment sequence from Lake Couridjah representing both the MIS 1 and MIS 5e interglacial periods vary by up to 4 to 6‰. These trends were subsequently identified in two other sediment sequences (Lake Baraba and Lake Werri Berri) proximal to Lake Couridjah. Initially we interpreted our results as reflecting a C3 dominated vegetation environment with MIS 1 wetter than MIS 5e, following the established relationship between water stress and d13C enrichment. However, spectral analysis of the OM pool indicates that d13C is driven by changing OM dynamics rather than large changes in environmental conditions. In these environments, the greater presence of carbohydrates (i.e. cellulose) in MIS 1 result in more depleted d13C values. In contrast, the MIS 5e peat is dominated by relative inert OM C fractions including charcoal and lipids (such as leaf waxes), which influences environmental proxies such as C/N. Thus, it is likely that the older MIS 5e peat is a more decomposed version of the active MIS 1 peat, and thus differentiating environmental conditions between the two using d13C alone is not particularly illuminating. To overcome this, we describe the d13C values for a coarse charcoal and high temperature hydrogen pyrolysis fractions, modern vegetation, catchment POC and DOC, and n-alkanes composition and generate catchment carbon models for both MIS 1 and MIS5e. Finally comparing the size of the OM pools of both interglacial deposits can provide useful information in estimating the carbon storage capacity of peat deposits in eastern Australia over these time scales.
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Towards the development of fire proxies in speleothems using geochemical signatures in ashes from bushfires
(Australasian Quaternary Association Inc., 2022-12-06) Campbell, M; McDonough, LK; Naeher, S; Treble, PC; Grierson, P; Sinclair, D; Howard, DL; Baker, AA
Our knowledge of past fire regimes is limited by short observational records. Proxy archives (such as sediment cores, ice cores, speleothems, and tree scars) are used to extend these records and develop a better understanding of past fire regimes. Recently, stalagmites (i.e., cave deposits), have been shown to record past fire events, and it is possible that they include other attributes of the fire regime (e.g. burn severity). Stalagmite fire proxies are both chemical (e.g. oxygen isotope composition of calcite, and nutrient and trace metal concentrations), and physical (e.g. growth rate, fabric). Trace metals and nutrients are leached from ash and subsequently transported to the stalagmite via hydrological pathways. We collected ash from four Australian karst sites which experienced fires in recent years (2019 and 2022). Ash chemical composition was determined by analysis of leachates (inorganic chemistry) and by analysis of the ash itself (organic biomarker concentrations of a subset of the ash dataset). The concentrations of inorganic components (e.g. of trace metals strontium and magnesium) show a clear difference between more- and less-combusted materials, as inferred by ash colour. Common fire biomarker concentrations (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and levoglucosan) showed no clear relationship with inferred burn severity. Together, this has implications for the use of both organic and inorganic fire proxies in stalagmites and other sedimentary proxy archives. Inorganic ash geochemistry results will be used to contextualise changes in stalagmite geochemistry from Western Australian stalagmites (as measured by LA-ICP-MS and Synchrotron micro-XFM) which experienced bushfires during the satellite era. We aim to determine whether stalagmite chemistry can be used as a proxy for burn severity.
Item
Analysis of compound semiconductor materials using heavy ion recoil spectrometry
(Australian and New Zealand Institutes of Physics, 1994-11-09) Walker, SR; Johnston, PN; Bubb, IF; Studd, W; Cohen, DD; Dytlewski, N; Hult, M; Whitlow, HJ; Zahring, C; Östling, M; Andersson, M; Martin, JW
Heavy Ion Recoil Spectrometry has been used to examine various semiconductor material systems which cannot easily be studied using convensional ion beam techniques such as RBS. The technique enables the determination of seperate energy spectra for individual elements. This enables it to be used in many situations where RBS is inappropriate due to the superimposition of signals in the backscattering spectrum. We have employed Recoil Spectrometry to study; light element impurity concentrations, stoiciometry and metalisation contact systems for various compound semiconductor materials.- The experiments were performed at the ANTARES (TN Tandem) accelerator facillity at Lucas Heights using 61-91 MeV 12?I ions jn e incident " ' i ions cause nuclei of the sample to recoil following Rutherford scattering. The recoiling target nuclei are then analysed by a Time Of Flight and Energy (TOF-E) detector telescope composed of two timing pickoff detectors and a surface barrier (energy) detector. From the time of flight and energy, the ion mass can be determined and individual depth distributions for each element can be obtained.
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Life and death of Holocene reefs of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia
(Australian Geosciences Council, 2012-08-05) Nothdurft, LD; Major, J; Leondard, ND; Zhao, JX; Price, GJ; Welsh, KJ; Webb, GE; Hua, Q
Dead fringing coral reefs of Moreton Bay are the southernmost fringing reefs in eastern Australia and are significant examples of marginal environments for subtropical reef growth. Two sites were investigated in the western part of the bay at Wellington Point and Cleveland Point. Seven auger cores and 5 surface transects were made across the dead reef flats to record spatial data on coral distribution and elevation and to provide samples for dating to test the timing and potential causes of reef termination. A total of 78 coral samples were dated using 230Th/U and 14C techniques. 230Th dates were determined by TIMS U-series, and MC-ICP-MS and 14C dates by AMS. Dates of framework corals indicate that reef growth initiated at different elevations by ∼7000 ybp and was predominantly vertical with little or no lateral progradation. Reef growth was continuous until termination at ∼5800 ybp. Micro-atolls (6523, 6680 ybp) suggest a sea level of ∼+1.3m above current lowest astronomical tides and elevated sea level persisted through that interval. Small incipient coral colonies on the dead reef surface range in ages between ∼4850 and 4700 ybp suggesting conditions were again suitable at that time for a recolonisation of the reef flat, but reef growth was not reinitiated. No younger ages were recorded. Temporal changes in Moreton Bay conditions have resulted in periodic phase shifts between favourable and unfavourable conditions for reef growth, coincident with a small sea level fall ∼5800 ybp and including potentially cooler temperatures and decreased water quality within the bay.
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New sea ice estimates over the last 49ky in the southeast Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean
(Australian Geosciences Council, 2012-08-05) Armand, LK; Quilty, PG; Howard, W; Burckle, L; Shemesh, A; Crosta, X; Cortese, G; Fink, D; Ferry, A
Although many Quaternary records have allowed the study of major glacial-interglacial change in the Southern Ocean, Holocene records from deep-sea cores are few and far between and are currently limited to the South Atlantic. Low sedimentation rates combined with deep seafloors, and the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll nature of the Southern Ocean are all in part responsible for the lack of decadal-to-centennial resolution records in the open-ocean environment. Our study is focused on an array of sedimentological, micropalaeontological and geochemical analyses conducted on the first open-ocean, high-resolution core study of Quaternary-Holocene sea-ice variability in the Southeast Indian Ocean; Eltanin piston core 27–23. In this presentation the results of sea ice estimates derived from diatom remains and tied to other physical and geological proxies will reveal the change from a sea-ice covered glacial maximum and deglacial transition through to the modern day. We report evidence of several Holocene ice edge advance episodes out to 59◦S, inclusive of the Antarctic Climatic Reversal. The addition of this record to existing, lower-resolution, sea-ice histories from regional cores MD88-787 and SO136-111 and in context to modern oceanographic fronts enables scenarios of regional palaeoceanographic change to be refined.