ANSTO Publications Online

Welcome to the ANSTO Institutional Repository known as APO.

The APO database has been migrated to version 7.5. The functionality has changed, but the content remains the same.

ANSTO Publications Online is a digital repository for publications authored by ANSTO staff since 2007. The Repository also contains ANSTO Publications, such as Reports and Promotional Material. ANSTO publications prior to 2007 continue to be added progressively as they are in identified in the library. ANSTO authors can be identified under a single point of entry within the database. The citation is as it appears on the item, even with incorrect spelling, which is marked by (sic) or with additional notes in the description field.

If items are only held in hardcopy in the ANSTO Library collection notes are being added to the item to identify the Dewey Call number: as DDC followed by the number.

APO will be integrated with the Research Information System which is currently being implemented at ANSTO. The flow on effect will be permission to publish, which should allow pre-prints and post prints to be added where content is locked behind a paywall. To determine which version can be added to APO authors should check Sherpa Romeo. ANSTO research is increasingly being published in open access due mainly to the Council of Australian University Librarians read and publish agreements, and some direct publisher agreements with our organisation. In addition, open access items are also facilitated through collaboration and open access agreements with overseas authors such as Plan S.

ANSTO authors are encouraged to use a CC-BY licence when publishing open access. Statistics have been returned to the database and are now visible to users to show item usage and where this usage is coming from.


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Now showing 1 - 5 of 5

Recent Submissions

Transforming spirulina maxima biomass into ultrathin bioactive coatings using an atmospheric plasma jet: a new approach to healing of infected wounds
(Wiley, 2023-09-15) Pham, T; Nguyen, TT; Nguyen, NH; Hayles, A; Li, WS; Pham, DQ; Nguyen, CK; Nguyen, T; Vongsvivut, JP; Ninan, N; Sabri, YM; Zhang, W; Vasiliev, K; Truong, VK
The challenge of wound healing, particularly in patients with comorbidities such as diabetes, is intensified by wound infection and the accelerating problem of bacterial resistance to current remedies such as antibiotics and silver. One promising approach harnesses the bioactive and antibacterial compound C-phycocyanin from the microalga Spirulina maxima. However, the current processes of extracting this compound and developing coatings are unsustainable and difficult to achieve. To circumvent these obstacles, a novel, sustainable argon atmospheric plasma jet (Ar-APJ) technology that transforms S. maxima biomass into bioactive coatings is presented. This Ar-APJ can selectively disrupt the cell walls of S. maxima, converting them into bioactive ultrathin coatings, which are found to be durable under aqueous conditions. The findings demonstrate that Ar-APJ-transformed bioactive coatings show better antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, these coatings exhibit compatibility with macrophages, induce an anti-inflammatory response by reducing interleukin 6 production, and promote cell migration in keratinocytes. This study offers an innovative, single-step, sustainable technology for transforming microalgae into bioactive coatings. The approach reported here has immense potential for the generation of bioactive coatings for combating wound infections and may offer a significant advance in wound care research and application. © 2023 The Authors. Small published by Wiley-VCH GmbH. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
Fast high-resolution synchrotron micro-XRF mapping of annually laminated stalagmites
(Copernicus GmbH, 2019-04-11) Borsato, A; Frisia, S; Hellstrom, JC; Treble, PC; Johnson, K; Howard, DL; Greig, A
Annual lamination in trace elements content allows to improve speleothem chronology as well as to extract paleoclimate information about fluctuations of the seasonal signal through time. Given the relatively slow growth and textural heterogeneity intrinsic in most speleothems, only high-resolution mapping techniques provide a viable approach to resolve trace elements variability at annual to sub-annual scale. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence microscopy (SR-μXRF) is, to date, the ideal technique as it provides quantitative, non-destructive fast scanning of large samples at the necessary high spatial resolution (0.5 – 5 μm). Here we present SR-μXRF investigation of U/Th dated stalagmites from caves in different geographic and climate setting including semi-arid (Flinders Ranges, South Australia), temperate (Central Italy) and tropical humid (Cook Islands, Northern Laos) climates. SR-μXRF analyses were coupled with high-resolution petrographic observation and LA-ICP-MS elemental analyses in order to verify the XRF elemental quantification and to test the relationship between fabric and trace element incorporation. All the analysed stalagmites revealed faint to sharp annual lamination in Sr, and, occasionally, in other elements such as Br, Cu and Zn. In climate setting characterised by strong seasonal contrast stalagmites often exhibit fabric changes at annual to centennial scale that are reflected in the internal porosity as well as in the incorporation of trace elements. Fabric control and spatial heterogeneity is also evident in the intensity of the annual cycles and, in some cases, the amplitude of Sr cycles vary considerably from one line scan to the adjacent ones. This poses the question of the significance and reproducibility of trace element analyses in speleothems characterised by fabric heterogeneity. © Author(s) 2019. CC Attribution 4.0 license.
Jaws caught on the IMBL
(Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 2021-11-25) Maksimenko, A; Reser, D; Häusermann, D; De Veer, M; Panagiotopoulou, O; Huveneers, C; Wright, D; Hall, C
Maturational changes in feeding behaviour among sharks are associated with increased mineralisation of the teeth and jaws, but this relationship has only been demonstrated in a few species. Large, highly mobile shark species are rarely available for detailed anatomical study, despite their importance for ecological health and widespread interest among the general population. We examined the crania, jaws, and teeth of two great white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias), a 2.3 m juvenile and a 3.2 m young adult. The CT scans used a 230 keV (mean energy) polychromatic beam from the 4 Tesla wiggler, with a filtration of 6mmAl, 6mmCu, 3mmMo and 3mmPb. The detector was a Teledyne-Dalsa Xineos 3030HR with 100µm pixels, a width of 300mm, and a 1mm CsI converter for high efficiency at high energy. Image noise was reduced by collecting 18,000 projections per rotation to deliver an image quality good enough to segment out different tissue types. With a beam size of 300mm x 35mm, the shark head was covered by ‘tiling’, and stitching the tiles, with the full-head image made up of two columns and 21 tiles, to image a 600mm x 520mm area. Total scan time was 9 hours. The heads were also imaged using conventional CT and 7 Tesla MRI for finite element modelling of bite forces produced by the jaw musculature. These results will be compared with measurements of the difference in mineralisation of tooth and jaw cartilage between the two specimens to assess developmental changes in tooth and jaw hardness as the animals shift their diets from largely fish-based (juvenile) to larger prey, such as seals, scavenged whales and surfers (adults). © The Authors
Assessment of regional atmospheric transport model performance using 222Radon observations
(European Geosciences Union (EGU), 2020-05-04) Karstens, U; Levin, I; Ramonet, M; Gerbig, C; Arnold, S; Conil, S; Della Coletta, J; Frumau, A; Gheusi, F; Kazan V; Kubistin, D; Lindauer, M; Lopez, M; Maurer, L; Mihalopoulos, N; Pichon, JM; Spain, G
The rather short life time of 222Radon of 5.5 days makes this radioactive noble gas an almost ideal tracer of atmospheric transport processes. 222Radon, the gaseous progeny of 226Radium, which is a trace constituent of all soils, can escape the soil grains and make its way from the unsaturated soil zone into the atmosphere. The exhalation rate of 222Radon from continental surfaces depends on soil type and permeability, but is orders of magnitude larger than that from ocean surfaces. Therefore, the atmospheric 222Radon activity concentration can be used as a measure of the residence time of air over continental surfaces or to distinguish continental from marine air masses. At continental sites, the short-term variability of 222Radon is mainly determined by diurnal or synoptic-scale boundary layer mixing processes. If its continental exhalation rate is known, 222Radon can even be applied as a quantitative tracer for evaluating regional scale transport model performance. In the present study we use 222Radon activity concentration measurements from the ICOS atmospheric station network and STILT transport model results to assess the ability of this routinely used model to correctly simulate the (diurnal) variation of boundary layer transport. This uncertainty assessment is an important step towards reliable estimates of the contribution of transport model error in GHGs inversion studies that aim at providing accurate fluxes from inversion of atmospheric GHGs observations in ICOS. © Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Developing annual tree-ring chronologies and climate reconstructions from moisture sensitive Araucariaceae trees in tropical and subtropical Australia
(International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA), 2019-07-30) Haines, HA; English, NB; Hua, Q; Olley, JM; Gadd, PS; Palmer, JG; Kemp, J
Many parts of tropical and subtropical Australia lack both annually-resolved long-term instrumental climate data and proxy climate records. This limits our understanding of past climate patterns and impacts. There are however, remnant forest stands where dendroclimatology could be applied to extend the climate record. Early studies into tropical Australian tree species suggested difficulty in dating these records due to the fact they are compromised by numerous ring anomalies. This has led to such species being understudied with little known about their tree growth to climate relationships and paleoclimate potential. Recent research of trees in the Araucariaceae family has attempted to address these issues in order to develop annual, chronologically precise, long-term climate reconstructions across tropical and subtropical Australia. Araucariaceae trees are commonly found across northern and eastern Australia and are longer lived than many other local non-temperate species. They are known to produce growth rings that are mostly annual and their growth appears sensitive to climate, specifically to moisture conditions. Three Araucariaceae species, hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii), bunya pine (Araucaria bidwillii) and purple kauri pine (Agathis atropurpurea) have been studied at five locations within the rainforests of eastern Queensland. Ring anomalies including false, faint, locally absent, and pinching or wedging rings, were identified. This was done by applying bomb-pulse radiocarbon dating, radiographic analysis, and density pattern assessment to hoop pine trees from subtropical Lamington and D’Aguilar National Parks. Additionally, dendrometers were installed on trees of all three species so that the annual nature of growth could be proven and the climate variables influencing seasonal growth identified. This analysis verified annual growth for all three species and proved that dating can be confirmed using a multi-technique approach. This demonstrates the suitability for dendrochronology in tropical and subtropical Australia to be applied for high-resolution climate reconstruction. Examination of growth-climate relationships indicated that moisture conditions are driving tree growth in these species so long-term reconstructions of rainfall and drought can be established. Following this, a 164-year drought reconstruction for Southeast Queensland was developed using hoop pine trees from the subtropical rainforest of Lamington National Park and a record extending back to 1400 has been developed for tropical Queensland. Additional work is continuing using this approach to further develop a network of long-term Queensland, Australia tree-ring climate records.