ANSTO Publications Online

Welcome to the ANSTO Institutional Repository known as APO.

The APO database has been migrated to version 7.5. The functionality has changed, but the content remains the same.

ANSTO Publications Online is a digital repository for publications authored by ANSTO staff since 2007. The Repository also contains ANSTO Publications, such as Reports and Promotional Material. ANSTO publications prior to 2007 continue to be added progressively as they are in identified in the library. ANSTO authors can be identified under a single point of entry within the database. The citation is as it appears on the item, even with incorrect spelling, which is marked by (sic) or with additional notes in the description field.

If items are only held in hardcopy in the ANSTO Library collection notes are being added to the item to identify the Dewey Call number: as DDC followed by the number.

APO will be integrated with the Research Information System which is currently being implemented at ANSTO. The flow on effect will be permission to publish, which should allow pre-prints and post prints to be added where content is locked behind a paywall. To determine which version can be added to APO authors should check Sherpa Romeo. ANSTO research is increasingly being published in open access due mainly to the Council of Australian University Librarians read and publish agreements, and some direct publisher agreements with our organisation. In addition, open access items are also facilitated through collaboration and open access agreements with overseas authors such as Plan S.

ANSTO authors are encouraged to use a CC-BY licence when publishing open access. Statistics have been returned to the database and are now visible to users to show item usage and where this usage is coming from.


Communities in ANSTO Publications Online

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 5

Recent Submissions

The effects of diet and beauty products on the uptake and storage of 14C in hair and nails: ramifications for the application of bomb pulse dating to forensic anthropological casework
(Elsevier BV, 2023-08) Johnstone-Belford, EC.; Jacobsen, GE; Fallon, SJ; Dipnall, JF; Blau, S.
Radiocarbon dating is a useful tool in the examination of unknown human remains. Recent studies have shown that the analysis of hair and nail samples can provide a highly accurate estimation of the year of death (YOD). However, little research has examined factors that may influence the uptake and storage of 14C in these tissues, such as diet, or the use of beauty products. This study measured the level of 14C in human hair and nail samples collected from living individuals to determine whether diet, and the use of hair dye or nail polish, has a significant impact on the estimation of YOD. The results of this study showed that diet did not appear to impact the radiocarbon content in human hair and nail, and thus should not be considered a limitation when analysing samples obtained from unidentified human remains. The use of nail polish, and in the majority of cases, hair dye, did not significantly impact the 14C concentration in nails and hair. While the results of this study are preliminary, they suggest that in most cases, both hair and nail can be successfully analysed using radiocarbon dating to estimate an individual’s YOD. However, best practice should involve the analysis of multiple tissue types, to minimise any error that may be introduced as a result of the decedent’s use of beauty products. © Crown Copyright 2023, Published by Elsevier B.V
Crystal Structure of Protic Ionic Liquids and their hydrates
(International Union of Crystallography, 2021-08-14) Hassett, MP; Brand, HEA; Binns, J; Martin, AV; Greaves, TL
Protic Ionic Liquids (PILs) are a class of tailorable solvents made up of fused salts with melting points below 100 °C, which are formed through a Brønsted acid-base reaction involving proton exchange[1]. These solvents have applications as lubricants, electrolytes, and many other uses[2]. Although they are quite similar to molten salts, their crystal structures have not been explored in-depth, with only ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) having a reported crystal structure[3, 4]. Ten alkylammonium-based protic ionic liquids at both neat (<1 wt% water) and 90 mol% PIL, 10 mol% water concentrations were selected. Diffraction patterns were collected at the Australian Synchrotron ANSTO while attempting to crystallise the samples by cooling to 120 K. Five samples crystallised (3 neat, 2 dilute), where the temperature of the system was then increased at a rate of 6 K/min to room temperature. From these patterns we have identified a number of crystal phases, identifying their stability ranges and lattice constant variation from 120 K to room temperature. © 2021 The Authors
Data evaluation on the fly: Auto-Rickshaw at the MX beamlines of the Australian Synchrotron
(International Union of Crystallography, 2021-08-14) Panjikar, S
Auto-Rickshaw [1,2] is a system for automated crystal structure determination. It provides computer coded decision-makers for successive and automated execution of a number of existing macromolecular crystallographic computer programs thus forming a software pipeline for automated and efficient crystal structure determination. Auto-Rickshaw (AR) is freely accessible to the crystallography community through the EMBL-Hamburg AR Server [3]. Recently, it has been installed at the ASCI cluster at the Australian Synchrotron which uses Docker and Kubernetes system for launching AR jobs in high-throughput manner. The synchrotron AR server is accessible to users from the MX beamline computers. AR at the MX beamlines can be invoked through command line or a web-based graphical user interface (GUI) for data and parameter input and for monitoring the progress of structure determination. It can be also invoked via automatic data processing if the parameter inputs have been pre set at the AR-GUI during X-ray diffraction experiment. A large number of possible structure solution paths are encoded in the system and the optimal path is selected as the structure solution evolves. The platform can carry out experimental (SAD, SIRAS, RIP or various MAD) and MR phasing or combination of experimental and MR phasing. The system has extended extensively for evaluation of multiple datasets for various phasing protocols as well as for evaluation of ligand binding and fragment screening. The new implementation and features will be discussed during the presentation. © 2022 The Author
The effect of molybdenum on clustering and precipitation behaviour of strip-cast steels containing niobium
(Elsevier B. V., 2019-12) Jiang, L; Marceau, RKW; Guan, B; Dorin, T; Wood, K; Hodgson, PD; Stanford, N
Two high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels containing Nb-carbonitrides were produced, one contained Mo and the other was Mo-free. The alloys were produced by simulated direct strip casting, and were fully bainitic in the as-cast condition. Isothermal ageing treatments were carried out to precipitate harden the alloy, and the strength was measured using a shear punch test. The dislocation density was measured with X-ray diffraction (XRD), and was found to be larger in the alloy containing Mo in all ageing conditions. Atom probe tomography (APT) showed the presence of solute clusters in the as-cast condition, and the addition of Mo increased both size and volume fraction of these clusters. The solute clusters provided significant strengthening increments of up to 112 MPa, and cluster strengthening was larger in the Mo-containing alloy. Precipitation of Nb-carbonitrides was observed after longer ageing times, which were refined by the addition of Mo. This was attributed to the higher dislocation density that increased the number of nucleation sites. Precipitate chemistry was similar for both alloys, and contrary to some literature reports, minimal Mo was observed to segregate to the precipitates. A thermodynamic rationale is presented which describes the reasons that Mo segregates to the Nb-carbide in some alloys but not in others, despite the alloy chemistries being relatively similar. © 2019 Acta Materialia Inc.
Towards real-time analysis of liquid jet alignment in SFX
(Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 2021-11-25) Patel, J; Peele, AG; Abbey, B; Round, A; Mancuso, A
Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) enables atomic scale imaging of protein structures via X-ray diffraction measurements from large numbers of small crystals intersecting intense X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) pulses. Sample injection typically involves continuous delivery of crystals to the pulsed XFEL beam via a liquid jet. Due to movement of the jet, which is often focused to further reduce its diameter using a gas virtual dynamic nozzle (GVDN), jet position is often adjusted multiple times during the experiment. This can result in loss of beamtime and significant manual intervention. Here we present a novel approach to the problem of liquid jet misalignment in SFX based on machine vision. We demonstrate automatic identification and classification of when there is overlap (‘hit’) and when there is not overlap (‘miss’) between the XFEL beam and jet. Our algorithm takes as its input optical images from the ‘side microscope’ located inside the X-ray hutch. This algorithm will be incorporated into the control system at the SFX/SPB beamline at the European XFEL where it will be used for in-situ ‘alignment correction’ via a continuous feedback loop with the stepper motors controlling the location of the nozzle within the chamber. Full automation of this process will result in a larger volume of useful data being collected. By increasing the efficiency and reducing the per experiment operational cost of SFX at the European XFEL a higher volume of experiments can be performed. In addition, via analysis of the feedback metrology we anticipate that optimised nozzle designs and jetting conditions could be achieved further benefitting the end user.