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    Deuteration for biological SANS: case studies, success and challenges in chemistry and biology
    (Elsevier, 2022-11) Duff, AP; Cagnes, MP; Darwish, TA; Krause-Heuer, AM; Moir, M; Recsei, C; Rekas, A; Russell, RA; Wilde, KL; Yepuri, NR
    Small angle neutron scattering is a powerful complementary technique in structural biology. It generally requires, or benefits from, deuteration to achieve its unique potentials. Molecular deuteration has become a mature expertise, with deuteration facilities located worldwide to support access to the technique for a wide breadth of structural biology and life sciences. The sorts of problems well answered by small angle scattering and deuteration involve large (> 10 Å) scale flexible movements, and this approach is best used where high-resolution methods (crystallography, NMR, cryo-EM) leave questions unanswered. This chapter introduces deuteration, reviewing biological deuteration of proteins, lipids and sterols, and then steps through the ever-expanding range of deuterated molecules being produced by chemical synthesis and enabling sophisticated experiments using physiologically relevant lipids. Case studies of recent successful use of deuteration may provide illustrative examples for strategies for future experiments. We discuss issues of nomenclature for synthesised molecules of novel labeling and make recommendations for their naming. We reflect on our experiences, with cost associated with achieving an arbitrary deuteration level, and on the benefits of experimental co-design by user scientist, deuteration scientist, and neutron scattering scientist working together. Although methods for biological and chemical deuteration are published in the public domain, we recommend that the best method to deuterate is to engage with a deuteration facility. © 2022 Elsevier
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    Using polarized neutron reflectometry to resolve effects of light elements and ion exposure on magnetization
    (Elsevier, 2020) Callori, SJ; Saerbeck, T; Cortie, DL; Lin, KW
    This chapter introduces the polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) technique with a focus on its unique applications to studying the effects of light elements and ion beams in magnetic thin films. The chapter is divided into six sections. Following a brief introduction in Section 1, Section 2 introduces the operational principles and advantages of PNR. Section 3 discusses recent experiments on magnetic hydrogen sensors using in-situ magnetic measurements made on a PNR beam line. Section 4 reviews recent progress using PNR to clarify how low-energy ion beams can modulate the magnetic properties by implantation, modifying oxygen stoichiometry, interface engineering with argon, and imprinting magnetic domains by driving phase transitions. Section 5 exemplifies how PNR can be used to study lateral magnetic domain structures patterned using helium ion beams. Section 6 presents conclusions and future perspectives in form of a brief roadmap highlighting some of the latest developments in PNR, and the new technical possibilities that are anticipated over the coming decade. © 2020 Elsevier Inc.
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    Biopolymer deuteration for neutron scattering and other isotope-sensitive techniques
    (Elsevier, 2015) Russell, RA; Garvey, CJ; Darwish, TA; Foster, LJR; Holden, PJ
    The use of microbial biosynthesis to produced deuterated recombinant proteins is a well-established practice in investigations of the relationship between molecular structure and function using neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. However, there have been few reports of using microbial synthetic capacity to produce labeled native biopolymers. Here, we describe methods for the production of deuterated polyhydroxyalkanoate biopolyesters in bacteria, the polysaccharide chitosan in the yeast Pichia pastoris, and cellulose in the bacterium Gluconacetobacter xylinus. The resulting molecules offer not only multiple options in creating structural contrast in polymer blends and composites in structural studies but also insight into the biosynthetic pathways themselves. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
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    Mobility of radionuclides in tropical soils and groundwater
    (Elsevier, 2012) Payne, TE; Edis, R
    The migration of radionuclides in tropical soils and groundwaters is subject to the same basic scientific principles as many other environments. However, the behaviour of radionuclides is also modified by many unique features of tropical systems including: climate and rainfall characteristics; soil mineralogy and properties; content and cycling of organic matter; and the presence of unique, potentially impacted environments (e.g., coral atolls in the case of weapons tests). Many tropical environments involve combinations of climatic and geochemical conditions not experienced elsewhere and are also subject to environmental modifications including urbanisation and climate change. These characteristics will influence the impact of potential radionuclide releases in the tropics. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
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    Application of time-resolved small angle neutron scattering to non-equilibrium kinetic studies
    (Springer Nature, 2011-11-15) Mata, JP; Hamilton, WA; Gilbert, EP
    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) provides structural information on the length scale from one to several hundred nanometres. Time-resolved SANS measurements (TR-SANS) therefore yield kinetic information on the evolution from one quasi-static structure to another. The technique offers complementary information to neutron spectroscopic methods where the focus is dynamics. Approaches for maximising time resolution in SANS are described, along with the particular advantages of neutrons, and some recent examples are discussed. © 2023 Springer Nature