Investigation of K modified P2 Na 0.7 Mn 0.8 Mg 0.2 O 2 as a cathode material for sodium-ion batteries

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Royal Society of Chemistry
Sodium-ion batteries (NIBs) are emerging as a potentially cheaper alternative to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to the larger abundance of sodium and in some cases the similar intercalation chemistry to LIBs. Here we report the solid state synthesized K-modified P2 Na0.7Mn0.8Mg0.2O2 which adopts hexagonal P63/mmc symmetry. The second charge/discharge capacity for the as-prepared material is 115/111 mA h g−1 between 1.5–4.2 V at a current density of 15 mA g−1, which reduces to 61/60 mA h g−1 after 100 cycles. Scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) analysis shows a heterogeneous distribution of K and solid state 23Na NMR illustrates that the presence of K perturbs the local environment of Na within the P2 Na0.7Mn0.8Mg0.2O2 crystal structure. Larger scale X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) data on the K L-edge also illustrate that K is present on the surface of electrodes in preference to the bulk. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) data illustrates that the P2 structural motif is preserved, featuring a solid solution reaction for most of charge–discharge except at the charged and discharged states where multiple phases are present. The K-modified sample of P2 Na0.7Mn0.8Mg0.2O2 is compared with the K-free samples in terms of both structural evolution and electrochemical performance. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2019
Sodium ions, Electric batteries, X-ray diffraction, Crystal structure, Solid solutions, Phase transformations, Electrochemistry
Sehrawat, D., Cheong, S., Rawal, A., Glushenkov, A. M., Brand, H. E. A., Cowie, B., Gonzalo, E., Rojo, T., Naeyaert, P. J. P., Ling, C. D., Avdeev, M., & Sharma, N. (2019). Investigation of K modified P2 Na 0.7 Mn 0.8 Mg 0.2 O 2 as a cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. CrystEngComm, 21(1), 172-181. doi:10.1039/C8CE01532E