Influence of synthesis routes on the crystallography, morphology, and electrochemistry of Li2MnO3

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American Chemical Society
With the potential of delivering reversible capacities of up to 300 mAh/g, Li-rich transition-metal oxides hold great promise as cathode materials for future Li-ion batteries. However, a cohesive synthesis–structure–electrochemistry relationship is still lacking for these materials, which impedes progress in the field. This work investigates how and why different synthesis routes, specifically solid-state and modified Pechini sol–gel methods, affect the properties of Li2MnO3, a compositionally simple member of this material system. Through a comprehensive investigation of the synthesis mechanism along with crystallographic, morphological, and electrochemical characterization, the effects of different synthesis routes were found to predominantly influence the degree of stacking faults and particle morphology. That is, the modified Pechini method produced isotropic spherical particles with approximately 57% faulting and the solid-state samples possessed heterogeneous morphology with approximately 43% faulting probability. Inevitably, these differences lead to variations in electrochemical performance. This study accentuates the importance of understanding how synthesis affects the electrochemistry of these materials, which is critical considering the crystallographic and electrochemical complexities of the class of materials more generally. The methodology employed here is extendable to studying synthesis–property relationships of other compositionally complex Li-rich layered oxide systems. © 2020 American Chemical Society
Granular materials, Synthesis, Crystallography, Morphology, Electrochemistry, Cathodes, Materials, Lithium, Manganese, Oxygen, Oxides
Menon, A. S., Ojwang, D. O., Willhammar, T., Peterson, V. K., Edström, K., Gomez, C. P., & Brant, W. R. (2020). Influence of synthesis routes on the crystallography, morphology, and electrochemistry of Li2MnO3. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 12(5), 5939-5950. doi:10.1021/acsami.9b20754