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Title: Sodium distribution and reaction mechanisms of a Na3V2O2(PO4)2F electrode during use in a sodium-ion battery
Authors: Sharma, N
Serras, P
Palomares, V
Brand, HEA
Alonso, J
Kubiak, P
Fdez-Gubieda, ML
Rojo, T
Keywords: Crystal lattices
Sodium ions
Electric batteries
Phase transformations
Issue Date: 13-May-2014
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Citation: Sharma, N., Serras, P., Palomares, V., Brand, H. E. A., Alonso, J., Kubiak, P., Fdez-Gubieda, M. L. & Rojo, T. (2014). Sodium distribution and reaction mechanisms of a Na3V2O2 (PO4) 2F electrode during use in a sodium-ion battery. Chemistry of Materials, 26(11), 3391-3402. doi:10.1021/cm5005104
Abstract: Ambient temperature sodium-ion batteries are emerging as an exciting alternative to commercially dominant lithium-ion batteries for larger scale stationary applications. In order to realize such a sodium-ion battery, electrodes need to be developed, understood, and improved. Here, Na 3V2O2(PO4)2F is investigated from the perspective of sodium. Reaction mechanisms for this cathode during battery function include the following: a region comprising at least three phases with subtly varying sodium compositions that transform via two two-phase reaction mechanisms, which appears at the lower potential plateau-like region during both charge and discharge; an extended solid solution region for majority of the cycling process, including most of the higher potential plateau; and a second two-phase region near the highest charge state during charge and between the first and second plateau-like regions during discharge. Notably, the distinct asymmetry in the reaction mechanism, lattice, and volume evolution on charge relative to discharge manifests an interesting question: Is such an asymmetry beneficial for this cathode? These reaction mechanisms are inherently related to sodium evolution, which shows complex behavior between the two sodium crystallographic sites in this compound that in turn mediate the lattice and reaction evolution. Thus, this work relates atomic-level sodium perturbations directly with electrochemical cycling. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
ISSN: 0897-4756
Appears in Collections:Journal Articles

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