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Title: Dopant distribution in co-free high-energy layered cathode materials
Authors: Mu, L
Zhang, R
Kan, WH
Zhang, Y
Li, L
Kuai, C
Zydlewski, B
Rahman, MM
Sun, CJ
Sainio, S
Avdeev, M
Nordlund, D
Xin, HL
Lin, F
Keywords: Phase transformations
Electrochemical cells
Electric batteries
Issue Date: 21-Nov-2019
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Citation: Mu, L., Zhang, R., Kan, W. H., Zhang, Y., Li, L., Kuai, C., Zydlewski, B., Rahman, M. M., Sun, C.-J., Sainio, S., Avdeev, M., Nordlund, D., Xin, H. L., & Lin, F. (2019) Dopant distribution in co-free high-energy layered cathode materials. Chemistry of Materials 31(23), 9769–9776. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.9b03603
Abstract: The practical implementation of Co-free, LiNiO2-derived cathodes has been prohibited by their poor cycle life and thermal stability, resulting from the structural instability, phase transformations, reactive surfaces, and chemomechanical breakdown. With the hierarchical distribution of Mg/Ti dual dopants in LiNiO2, we report a Co-free layered oxide that exhibits enhanced bulk and surface stability. Ti shows a gradient distribution and is enriched at the surface, whereas Mg distributes homogeneously throughout the primary particles. The resulting Mg/Ti codoped LiNiO2 delivers a material-level specific energy of ∼780 W h/kg at C/10 with 96% retention after 50 cycles. The specific energy reaches ∼680 W h/kg at 1C with 77% retention after 300 cycles. Furthermore, the Mg/Ti dual dopants improve the rate capability, thermal stability, and self-discharge resistance of LiNiO2. Our synchrotron X-ray, electron, and electrochemical diagnostics reveal that the Mg/Ti dual dopants mitigate phase transformations, reduce nickel dissolution, and stabilize the cathode–electrolyte interface, thus leading to the favorable battery performance in lithium metal and graphite cells. The present study suggests that engineering the dopant distribution in cathodes may provide an effective path toward lower cost, safer, and higher energy density Co-free lithium batteries. © 2019 American Chemical Society
ISSN: 1520-5002
Appears in Collections:Journal Articles

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