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Title: Geological evidence for the destruction of Shinmachi, Hawaii, by the 1946 Aleutian and 1960 Chile Tsunamis?
Authors: Chagué-Goff, C
Goto, K
Goff, JR
Gadd, PS
Sugawara, D
Nakamura, N
Keywords: Geology
Aleutian Islands
Numerical analysis
Natural disasters
Issue Date: 12-Dec-2016
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Citation: Chagué-Goff. C., Goto, K., Goff, J. R., Gadd, P. S., Sugawara, D. & Nakamura, N. (2016). Geological evidence for the destruction of Shinmachi, Hawaii, by the 1946 Aleutian and 1960 Chile Tsunamis? AGU Fall Meeting, December 12-16, 2016, San Francisco, California.
Series/Report no.: NH43A-1800;
Abstract: Around 1900, Japanese workers brought to Big Island, Hawaii, to work on the sugar plantations, established the Shinmachi (`New Town') community on low-lying land on Hilo's waterfront. Although Shinmachi was obliterated by the 1946 Aleutian tsunami, it was rebuilt, only to be totally destroyed again by the 1960 Chile tsunami. Shinmachi was never rebuilt and the site is now part of the Wailoa State Park. Short cores were collected throughout the park in an attempt to recover the geological evidence of these two tsunamis. Two anomalous layers, a lower sand (Unit 1) and an upper fining upward fine sand to silt (Unit 2) intercalated within soil and peat and exhibiting sharp lower and upper contacts, were recorded at only a few locations, probably reflecting, at least partly, the effect of anthropogenic disturbance and a limited amount of accommodation space on recent Holocene lava flows. One core was analysed by ITRAX core scanner equipped with a magnetic susceptibility (MS) meter. Unit 1 exhibits high MS associated with high Fe, Mn and Rb counts, but low Si and K counts, reflecting the volcanic composition of the material, and probably an older flooding event from the river. Unit 2 on the other hand is characterised by a different suite of elements, including Si, K, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ca, Sr, Zr and As. These most likely represent the mineralogical and chemical composition of shallow marine sediments from Hilo Bay and/or brackish sediments from Wailoa River estuary. High concentrations of As in particular have previously been reported in sediments from Hilo Bay and Wailoa River estuary and attributed to the release of arsenic trioxide by a canec manufacturing plant between 1932-1963. In this study, As was absent below Unit 2, and can thus be used as chronological control. Unit 2 therefore most likely represents the 1946 tsunami deposit. There was no clear evidence for the 1960 tsunami, probably reflecting the limited amount of accommodation space in the area.
Gov't Doc #: 9654
Appears in Collections:Conference Publications

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