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dc.contributor.authorCarolan, JV-
dc.contributor.authorHughes, CE-
dc.contributor.authorHoffmann, EL-
dc.identifier.citationCarolan, J.V., Hughes, C.E., Hoffmann, E.L. (2011). Dose assessment for marine biota and humans from discharge of (131)I to the marine environment and uptake by algae in Sydney, Australia. 10th Biennial SPERA (South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association) Conference, 24/11/2008 to 27/11/2008, Christchurch, New Zealand. In Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Vol. 102(10), 953-963. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2009.10.002en_AU
dc.description.abstractIodine-131 reaches the marine environment through its excretion to the sewer by nuclear medicine patients followed by discharge through coastal and deepwater outfalls. 131I has been detected in macroalgae, which bio-accumulate iodine, growing near the coastal outfall of Cronulla sewage treatment plant (STP) since 1995. During this study, 131I levels in liquid effluent and sludge from three Sydney STPs as well as in macroalgae (Ulva sp. and Ecklonia radiata) growing near their shoreline outfalls were measured. Concentration factors of 176 for Ulva sp. and 526 for E. radiata were derived. Radiation dose rates to marine biota from 131I discharged to coastal waters calculated using the ERICA dose assessment tool were below the ERICA screening level of 10 μGy/hr. Radiation dose rates to humans from immersion in seawater or consumption of Ulva sp. containing 131I were three and two orders of magnitude below the IAEA screening level of 10 μSv/year, respectively. year, respectively. Crown Copyright © 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltden_AU
dc.subjectAquatic ecosystemsen_AU
dc.subjectNew South Walesen_AU
dc.subjectCoastal watersen_AU
dc.titleDose assessment for marine biota and humans from discharge of (131)I to the marine environment and uptake by algae in Sydney, Australiaen_AU
dc.typeJournal Articleen_AU
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