Scientific and Technical Reports


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    Radiocarbon age dating groundwaters of the West Canning Basin, Western Australia
    (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 2009-03) Meredith, KT
    This report has been prepared by Karina Meredith, a hydrogeochemist from Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation’s (ANSTO) Institute for Environmental Research, for the Government of Western Australia (WA), Department of Water (DoW). The purpose of this project was to provide assistance and technical support with groundwater sampling, radiocarbon analysis, interpretation of isotopic and hydrogeochemical data, and radiocarbon correction modelling for groundwater samples. These tasks were completed so that a representative age for groundwaters in the West Canning Basin in the Pilbara Region could be made. This work forms part of the Pilbara Water Smart Australia Project. Crown Copyright © 2009
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    Interim report task 3: immobilisation process/equipment testing – task 3.4: nondestructive evaluation Part 1 of 2 to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for contract B345772
    (US Department of Energy (DOE), 2000-04-10) Stewart, MWA; Vance, ER; Day, RA; Lumpkin, GR
    This report contains a summary of the results generated for Task 3.4: Non-destructive Evaluation (a subtask of Task 3: Immobilization Process/Equipment Testing). The aim of this task was to carry out X-ray diffraction (XRD) on selected samples from previous Task 1: Form Development work. These XRD results were to be compared to the results obtained using quantitative scanning electron microscopy.
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    Solid solubilities of Pu, U, Gd and Hf in candidate ceramic nuclear wasteforms
    (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 2001-04-02) Vance, ER; Carter, ML; Lumpkin, GR; Day, RA; Begg, BD
    The goal of this research project was to determine the solid solubility of Pu, U, Gd, and Hf in candidate ceramics for immobilization of high-level nuclear waste. The experimental approach was to saturate each phase by adding more than the solid solubility limit of the given cation, using a nominated substitution scheme, and then analyzing the candidate phase that formed to evaluate the solid solubility limit under firing conditions. Confirmation that the solid solution limit had been reached insofar as other phases rich in the cation of interest was also required. The candidate phases were monazite, titanite, zirconolite, perovskite, apatite, pyrochlore, and brannerite. The valences of Pu and U were typically deduced from the firing atmosphere, and charge balancing in the candidate phase composition as evaluated from electron microscopy, although in some cases it was measured directly by x-ray absorption and diffuse reflectance spectroscopies (for U). Tetravalent Pu and U have restricted (< 0.1 formula units) solid solubility in apatite, titanite, and perovskite. Trivalent Pu has a larger solubility in apatite and perovskite than Pu4+. U3+ appears to be a credible species in reduced perovskite with a solubility of {approximately} 0.25 f.u. as opposed to {approximately} 0.05 f.u. for U4+. Pu4+ is a viable species in monazite and is promoted at lower firing temperatures ({approximately} 800 C) in an air atmosphere. Hf solubility is restricted in apatite, monazite (< 0.1 f.u.), but is {approximately} 0.2 and 0.5 f.u. in brannerite and titanite, respectively. Gd solubility is extended in all phases except for titanite ({approximately} 0.3 f.u.). U5+ was identified by DRS observations of absorption bands in the visible/near infrared photon energy ranges in brannerite and zirconolite, and U4+ in zirconolite was similarly identified.
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    Megavolt accelerator systems for environmental monitoring at ANSTO
    (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 2023-01) Cohen, DD
    The accelerator based ion beam techniques of ion beam analysis (IBA) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) have been applied to environmental studies for many decades. IBA is particularly suited to fine particle air pollution studies where multi-elemental analysis of microgram samples is required. AMS, using 14C isotope, is a key tool for climate change studies and other isotopes like 36Cl and 10Be can be applied to ground water and soil erosion studies depending on the isotopic half-life and timescale being used. Megavolt accelerator systems together with modern detector systems are capable of individual atom and photon counting and consequently are very sensitive detection systems. They are capable of precise and accurate measurements on very small sample sizes. The multi-element IBA technique of PIXE is capable of measuring some elements with (µg/g) sensitivity on picogram (pg) samples. The AMS techniques used in 14C analysis have achieved dates out to 50,000 years on 10 µg samples.