Browsing by Author "Zhu, Y"
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- ItemFurther geological and palaeoanthropological investigations at the Maludong hominin site, Yunnan Province, Southwest China(Springer Nature, 2013-08-28) Ji, X; Curnoe, D; Bao, Z; Herries, AIR; Fink, D; Zhu, Y; Hellstrom, JC; Luo, Y; Tacon, PSCThree-dimensional mapping and section work undertaken by us in 2008 have identified 11 stratigraphic units at Maludong site. AMS radiocarbon dating of charcoal established an accurate and internally consistent age profile for the sequence of 17.8±0.2 ka to 13.2±0.1 ka. Archaeomagnetic analysis showed changes in externally derived pedogenically enhanced material consistent with a warming in climate between the cold period of Henrich Event 1 and the Bølling-Allerød interstadial. Human remains recovered during the 1989 excavation were derived from a deposit dating to this interstadial, or between 14.3±0.3 ka and 13.5±0.1 ka. Anthropogenic features, including burnt rocks, baked sediment and thick charcoal and ash layers, were identified and examined through archaeomagnetic analysis. Two monkey fossils are described here, one of them being reassigned from Macaca robustus to M. aff. M. assamensis. They confirm the young age of the site and also show signs of anthropogenic alteration in the form of burning. Additional human cranial remains are reported for the first time and new data are provided for some specimens described previously. A range of new features is identified that strengthen the affinities of the Maludong remains to archaic humans. The presence of this globally unique mosaic of archaic and modern features raises important questions about human evolutionary history in East Asia during the Late Upper Pleistocene. © The Authors - Open Access
- ItemIn operando neutron diffraction study of the temperature and current rate-dependent phase evolution of LiFePO4 in a commercial battery(Elsevier, 2017-02-28) Sharma, N; Yu, DH; Zhu, Y; Wu, Y; Peterson, VKIn operando NPD data of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries reveal unusual LiFePO4 phase evolution after the application of a thermal step and at high current. At low current under ambient conditions the LiFePO4 to FePO4 two-phase reaction occurs during the charge process, however, following a thermal step and at higher current this reaction appears at the end of charge and continues into the next electrochemical step. The same behavior is observed for the FePO4 to LiFePO4 transition, occurring at the end of discharge and continuing into the following electrochemical step. This suggests that the bulk (or the majority of the) electrode transformation is dependent on the battery's history, current, or temperature. Such information concerning the non-equilibrium evolution of an electrode allows a direct link between the electrode's functional mechanism that underpins lithium-ion battery behavior and the real-life operating conditions of the battery, such as variable temperature and current, to be made. Crown Copyright©2016 Published by Elsevier B.V
- ItemAn in vitro model to investigate the interactions between antimicrobial peptides and the outer membrane of gram-negative pathogens(Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 2016-11-29) Han, ML; Shen, HH; Zhu, Y; Le Brun, AP; Holt, SA; Roberts, K; Song, JN; Cooper, MA; Moskowitz, SM; Velkov, T; Li, JIncreasing antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria led to polymyxins as the last therapy. Polymyxins present their antimicrobial activity through an initial electronical interaction with lipid A in the outer membrane (OM) of GNB, and the most common mechanism of polymyxin resistance is through modifications of lipid A with positively charged groups, such as 4-amino-L-arabinose (L-Aar4N) or phosphoethanolamine (pEtN). However, it is notable that Gram-negative bacteria employ a combination of charge-charge repulsion mechanism and the modification to fatty acyl chains of lipid A to obtain high-level polymyxin resistance. Hence, we designed hydrophobic polymyxin-related lipopeptides in order to overcome modified lipid A to insert into the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we employed neutron reflectometry (NR) study to investigate the interactions between lipid A and polymyxins. Lipid A was extracted from polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, and analysed using ESI-MS in the negative ion mode. The asymmetric lipid A: deuterated DPPC bilayers were deposited on SiO2 surfaces by combined Langmuir-Blodgett and Langmuir-Schaefer disposition methods, and characterised by neutron reflectometer. Our results showed L-Ara4N modified lipid A was observed in polymyxin-resistant PAKpmrB6 strain, but not in the wild-type PAK strain. The NR data obtained from unmodified lipid A: DPPC bilayer was fitted into a five-layer model. Whereas, a six-layer model containing an extra outer headgroup was established for L-Ara4N modified lipid A: d-DPPC bilayer. Our results showed a dense of PMB (volume fraction of >20%) bound to the surface of both unmodified and modified lipid A: DPPC bilayers. While it is notable that the significant changes in NR profiles obtained from H2O contrast indicated about 15.8% and 6.1% of PMB penetrated into the wild-type lipid A headgroup and fatty acyl chains, respectively, but without penetration into L-Ara4N-lipid A: d-DPPC bilayer. However, the employment of octpeptin A3 induced higher hydrophobic interactions with L-Ara4N-lipid A: d-DPPC bilayer. Our study provides an in vitro model to investigate the interactions of polymyxins with OM bilayers in GNB, and confirmed that lipid A modification with L-Ara4N was certainly to reduce the penetration of PMB into bacterial membranes. Remarkably, the higher binding affinity between octapeptin A3 and L-Ara4N modified lipid A indicated its potential to be the new generation antibiotics for the therapy of infections caused by multi-drug resistant Gram negative bacteria.
- ItemIncrease of the stability range of the skyrmion phase in doped Cu2OSeO3(Australian Institute of Physics, 2020-02-04) Sauceda Flores, JA; Rov, R; Camacho, L; Spasovski, M; Vella, J; Yick, S; Gilbert, EP; Han, MG; Zhu, Y; Seidel, J; Kharkov, Y; Sushkov, OP; Söhnel, T; Ulrich, CA skyrmion is a topological stable particle-like object comparable to a spin vortex at the nanometre scale. It consists of an about 50 nm large spin rotation and its spin winding number is quantized. Once formed, the skyrmions order in a two dimensional, typically hexagonal superstructure perpendicular to an applied external magnetic field (see Fig. 1). Its dynamics has links to flux line vortices as in high temperature superconductors. Cu2OSeO3 is a unique case of a multiferroic materials where the skyrmion dynamics could be controlled through the application of an external electric field. The direct control of the skyrmion dynamics through a non-dissipative method would offer technological benefits and unique possibilities for testing fundamental theories also related to the Higgs Boson whose theoretical description has similarities to skyrmions. Important for technological applications is a stability range of the skyrmion phase up to room temperature. While room temperature skyrmion materials exist, Cu2OSeO3 orders magnetically below 58 K. Our combined small angle neutron scattering (see Fig. 2), SQUID magnetization measurements and electron microscopy investigations did provide direct evidence that the stability range of the skyrmion phase can be extended in Te-doped Cu2OSeO3. The understanding of this effect will help to obtain deeper insights in the magnetic correlations in charge of the skyrmion formation and will thus help to systematically search for skyrmion materials with phase transition temperatures towards room temperature.
- ItemLithium position and occupancy fluctuations in a cathode during charge/discharge cycling of lithium-ion battery(Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE), 2012-11-07) Sharma, N; Yu, DH; Zhu, Y; Wu, Y; Peterson, VKLithium-ion batteries are undergoing rapid development to meet the energy demands of the transportation and renewable energy-generation sectors. The capacity of a lithium-ion battery is dependent on the amount of lithium that can be reversibly incorporated into the cathode. Neutron diffraction provides greater sensitivity towards lithium relative to other diffraction techniques. In conjunction with the penetration depth afforded by neutron diffraction, the information concerning lithium gained in a neutron diffraction study allows commercial lithium-ion batteries to be explored with respect to the lithium content in the whole cathode. Furthermore, neutron diffraction instruments featuring area detectors that allow relatively fast acquisitions enable perturbations of lithium location and occupancy in the cathode during charge/discharge cycling to be determined in real time. Here, we present the time, current, and temperature dependent lithium transfer occurring within a cathode functioning under conventional charge-discharge cycling. The lithium location and content, oxygen positional parameter, and lattice parameter of the Li 1+yMn 2O4 cathode are measured and linked to the battery's charge/discharge characteristics (performance). We determine that the lithium-transfer mechanism involves two crystallographic sites, and that the mechanism differs between discharge and charge, explaining the relative ease of discharging (compared with charging) this material. Furthermore, we find that the rate of change of the lattice is faster on charging than discharging, and is dependent on the lithium insertion/ extraction processes (e.g. dependent on how the site occupancies evolve). Using in situ neutron diffraction data the atomic-scale understanding of cathode functionality is revealed, representing detailed information that can be used to direct improvements in battery performance at both the practical and fundamental level.
- ItemNon-equilibrium structural evolution of the lithium-rich Li1+yMn2O4 cathode within a battery(American Chemical Society., 2013-03-12) Sharma, N; Yu, DH; Zhu, Y; Wu, Y; Peterson, VKLithium-ion batteries are undergoing rapid development to meet the energy demands of the transportation and renewable energy-generation sectors. The capacity of a lithium-ion battery is dependent on the amount of lithium that can be reversibly incorporated into the cathode. This work directly quantifies the time- and current-dependent lithium transfer within a cathode functioning under conventional charge?discharge cycling. We examine Li1+yMn2O4 under real working conditions using in situ neutron powder diffraction and link the atomic-scale structure to the battery performance. The lithium location and content, oxygen positional parameter, and lattice parameter of the cathode are measured and linked to the battery?s charge/discharge characteristics. Lithium insertion (discharge) differs from extraction (charge), a feature that may explain the relative ease of discharge (compared with charge) of this material. An atomic-scale understanding of cathode functionality, such as revealed here, will direct improvements in battery performance at both the practical and the fundamental level. © 2013, American Chemical Society.
- ItemPolymyxin-induced lipid A deacylation in pseudomonas aeruginosa perturbs polymyxin penetration and confers high-level resistance(ACS Publications, 2017-11-28) Han, ML; Velkov, T; Zhu, Y; Roberts, KD; Le Brun, AP; Chow, SH; Gutu, AD; Moskowitz, SM; Shen, HH; Li, JPolymyxins are last-line antibiotics against life-threatening multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Unfortunately, polymyxin resistance is increasingly reported, leaving a total lack of therapies. Using lipidomics and transcriptomics, we discovered that polymyxin B induced lipid A deacylation viapagL in both polymyxin-resistant and -susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results demonstrated that the deacylation of lipid A is an “innate immunity” response to polymyxins and a key compensatory mechanism to the aminoarabinose modification to confer high-level polymyxin resistance in P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, cutting-edge neutron reflectometry studies revealed that an assembled outer membrane (OM) with the less hydrophobic penta-acylated lipid A decreased polymyxin B penetration, compared to the hexa-acylated form. Polymyxin analogues with enhanced hydrophobicity displayed superior penetration into the tail regions of the penta-acylated lipid A OM. Our findings reveal a previously undiscovered mechanism of polymyxin resistance, wherein polymyxin-induced lipid A remodeling affects the OM packing and hydrophobicity, perturbs polymyxin penetration, and thereby confers high-level resistance. © 2017 American Chemical Society