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|Title: ||Morphology and evolution of drowned carbonate terraces during the last two interglacial cycles, off Hilo, NE Hawaii|
|Authors: ||Puga-Bernabéu, Á|
|Issue Date: ||1-Jan-2016|
|Citation: ||Puga-Bernabéu, Á., Webster, J. M., Braga, J. C., Clague, D. A., Dutton, A., Eggins, S., Fallon, S., Jacobsen, G., Paduan, J. B., & Potts, D. C. (2016). Morphology and evolution of drowned carbonate terraces during the last two interglacial cycles, off Hilo, NE Hawaii. Marine Geology, 371, 57-81. doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2015.10.016|
|Abstract: ||The eastern side of Hawaii Island is a rapidly subsiding margin dominated by drowned carbonate platforms. We present detailed bathymetric and backscatter data, remotely operated vehicle and submersible observations, sedimentological and 14C accelerator mass spectrometry and U/Th age data from seven submerged terraces (H7, H2a–d, H1a–b) in water depths between 1100 and 25 m off Hilo, north-eastern Hawaii. The main carbonate deposits on these terraces are coral deposits, rhodolith beds, coralline algal mounds, crusts, pavements and tabular sheets. We identified five previously described sedimentary shallow- to deep-water facies and one new facies type that are consistent with reef drowning on a rapidly subsiding margin. We used palaeobathymetric data derived from the sedimentary facies, age versus depth relationships, and published sea-level curves, to estimate a uniform long-term subsidence rate of 2.80 ± 0.36 m/ky for the eastern side of Hawaii over the last 150 ky. Terrace H7 developed about 380 ka based on data from the western side of the island. Active coral growth on terrace H2d occurred during the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 to 5 transition, and the terrace drowned during the peak of MIS 5e when sea level rose faster than reefs could grow. Favoured by the gentle platform gradient, reefs established progressively landwards with a backstepping pattern during MIS 5e to form the terraces H2c and H2b 122 ka. Final turn-off of shallow water carbonate production on terraces H2b–d coincided with the relative sea-level rise of the interstadial MIS 5a. Bathymetry and submersible data suggest that carbonate sediments on terraces H2a and H1b were deposited over an antecedent topography of local lava deltas emplaced during rising sea levels at ca. 85 and 65 ka, while terrace H1a established on lava delta substrates of the Mauna Loa volcano ca. 11 ka. We conclude that the initiation, growth and drowning of coral-reef terraces off Hilo differ in some ways from the pattern observed in the submerged terraces in the western side of Hawaii and that the platform evolution off Hilo is more strongly influenced by emplacement of offshore lava flows. © 2015, Elsevier B.V|
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