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|Title: ||Characterisation and source apportionment of fine particulate sources at Hanoi from 2001 to 2008.|
|Authors: ||Cohen, DD|
|Issue Date: ||Jan-2010|
|Citation: ||Cohen, D. D., Crawford, J., Stelcer, E., & Bac, V. T. (2010). Characterisation and source apportionment of fine particulate sources at Hanoi from 2001 to 2008. Atmospheric Environment, 44(3), 320-328.|
|Abstract: ||PM2.5 particulate matter has been collected on Teflon filters every Sunday and Wednesday at Hanoi, Vietnam for nearly eight years from April 2001 to December 2008. These filters have been analysed for over 21 different chemical species from hydrogen to lead by ion beam analysis techniques. This is the first long term PM2.5 dataset for this region. The average PM2.5 mass for the study period was (54 ± 33) μg m―3, well above the current US EPA health goal of 15 μg m―3. The average PM2.5 composition was found to be (29 ± 8)% ammonium sulfate, (8.9 ± 3.3)% soil, (28 ± 11)% organic matter, (0.6 ± 1.4)% salt and (9.2 ± 2.8)% black carbon. The remaining missing mass (25%) was mainly nitrates and absorbed water. Positive matrix factorisation techniques identified the major source contributions to the fine mass as automobiles and transport (40 ± 10)%, windblown soil (3.4 ± 2)%, secondary sulfates (7.8 ± 10)%, smoke from biomass burning (13 ± 6)%, ferrous and cement industries (19 ± 8)%, and coal combustion (17 ± 7)% during the 8 year study period. © 2010, Elsevier Ltd.|
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