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|Title: ||Fine-particle Mn and other metals linked to the introduction of MMT into gasoline in Sydney, Australia: results of a natural experiment.|
|Authors: ||Cohen, DD|
|Issue Date: ||1-Nov-2005|
|Citation: ||Cohen, D. D., Gulson, B. L., Davis, J. M., Stelcer, E., Garton, D., Hawas, O., et al. (2005). Fine-particle Mn and other metals linked to the introduction of MMT into gasoline in Sydney, Australia: results of a natural experiment. Atmospheric Environment, 39(36), 6885-6896.|
|Abstract: ||Using a combination of accelerator-based ion beam methods we have analysed PM2.5 particulates for a suite of 21 species (H, C, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Pb) to evaluate the contribution to Sydney (New South Wales, Australia) air associated with the introduction of MMT as a replacement for lead. MMT was discontinued in 2004. Teflon filters representing continuous sampling for a 7 year period from 1998 to 2004 were analysed from two sites: one from Mascot, a suburb close to the Central Business District [CBD (n=718)] and a high trafficked area, and the other, a relatively rural (background) setting at Richmond, 20 km west of the CBD (n=730). Manganese concentrations in air at the background site increased from a mean of 1.5–1.6 ng m−3 to less than 2 ng m−3 at the time of greatest MMT use whereas those at Mascot increased from about 2 to 5 ng m−3. From the maximum values, the Mn showed a steady decrease at both sites concomitant with the decreasing use of MMT. Lead concentrations in air at both sites decreased from 1998 onwards, concomitant with the phase out of leaded gasoline, attained in 2002. Employing previously determined elemental signatures it was possible to adjust effects from season along with auto emissions and soil. A high correlation was obtained for the relationship between Mn in air and lead replacement gasoline use (R2 0.83) and an improved correlation for Mn/ Al+Si+K and lead replacement gasoline use (R2 0.93). In addition, using Mn concentrations normalized to background values of Al+Si+K or Ti to account for the lithogenically derived Mn, the proportion of anthropogenic Mn was approximately 70%. The changes for Mn and Pb detected in the particulates are attributed to the before-during-after use of MMT and decreasing use of lead in gasoline. The values measured in Sydney air are well below the reference concentration of 50 ng Mn m−3. The incremental increases in air, however, are larger than expected given the limited use of MMT only in lead replacement gasoline and high quality monitoring should be undertaken in countries where MMT is used in all gasoline. © 2005, Elsevier Ltd.|
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