Characterization of the residual strains in iterative laser forming

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In laser forming, thermally induced strains transverse to the laser scan line vary with depth in the material and contribute most significantly to the desired deformation. The through-thickness transverse residual strain distribution was measured by neutron diffraction in laser-formed low carbon steel and aluminium alloy specimens. The specimens were formed with a wide range of laser line energies covering the temperature gradient mechanism (TGM) and shortening or upsetting mechanism (SM), and for single and multi-pass forming (up to 3 laser passes). Below the saturation line energy where the TGM dominates, the gradient of the through-thickness strain distribution was found to increase with increasing line energy and number of laser passes; the gradient decreased again at line energies above the saturation line energy where the efficiency of the TGM decreases. Iterative laser forming can be applied to reduce weld-induced distortions. The peak longitudinal strain measured in the weld seam of a specimen that had been straightened by iterative laser forming was also significantly reduced.(C) 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Neutron diffraction, Residues, Lasers, Welded joints, Aluminium alloys, Distribution
Knupfer, S. M., Paradowska, A. M., Kirstein, O., & Moore, A. J. (2012). Characterization of the residual strains in iterative laser forming. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 212(1), 90-99. doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2011.08.009