Browsing Journal Publications by Title
Now showing 1 - 20 of 3367
Results Per Page
- Item100-position robotic sample changer for powder diffraction with low-background vacuum chamber(Wiley-Blackwell, 2010-04) Olsen, SR; Pullen, SA; Avdeev, MAt the new Australian OPAL research reactor, experiments carried out at room temperature use a substantial fraction of beam time on the high-resolution powder diffractometer, Echidna. With an average data collection time of 2 h and a complicated safety interlock system to protect users, the need for a fully automated and remotely controlled system was quickly realized. This report presents a solution based on a commercial four-axis robot capable of loading samples from two 50-position sample trays, in any order, into an automatically evacuated chamber. This chamber significantly reduced background signal arising from air scattering, with the effect being especially pronounced at low and high 2 angles. In the case of textured or inhomogeneous samples, the system may be re-configured so that the robot rotates the sample in the beam or translates it vertically through the beam. © 2010, Wiley-Blackwell.
- Item10Be exposure ages of ancient desert pavements reveal Quaternary evolution of the Dead Sea drainage basin and rift margin tilting(Elsevier, 2010-02-15) Guralnik, B; Matmon, A; Avni, Y; Fink, DEarly to late Pleistocene 10Be exposure ages of abandoned surfaces in the Negev desert reveal the regional drainage evolution history and its relationship with the subsidence of the western margin of the Dead Sea Rift. The dated desert paved surfaces have developed over originally westward-flowing rivers, which were abandoned by early Pleistocene and whose relicts are now progressively tilted towards the rift axis. The slow and non-destructive subsidence coupled with extreme hyperaridity enabled the preservation of these ancient surfaces along some of the main water divides in the Negev, nearly irrespective of their distance from the rift axis. Constraints on the tilting history are obtained from analyzing the spatial pattern of the exposure ages, suggesting subsidence rates as low as 120–300 m Ma–1 in the southern Arava Valley since the late Pliocene. It is shown that the transition from the Pliocene to current drainage pattern occurred over a short period during the early Pleistocene, and that the governing fluvial response that followed the delineation of current basins is represented by a continuous spectrum of ages of inset terraces.
- Item10Be in last deglacial climate simulated by ECHAM5-HAM – Part I: climatological influences on 10Be deposition(Copernicus Publications, 2013-11-25) Heikkilä, UE; Phipps, SJ; Smith, AMReconstruction of solar irradiance has only been possible for the Holocene so far. During the last deglaciation, two solar proxies (10Be and 14C) deviate strongly, both of them being influenced by climatic changes in a different way. This work addresses the climate influence on 10Be deposition by means of ECHAM5-HAM atmospheric aerosol–climate model simulations, forced by sea surface temperatures and sea ice extent created by the CSIRO Mk3L coupled climate system model. Three time slice simulations were performed during the last deglaciation: 10 000 BP ("10k"), 11 000 BP ("11k") and 12 000 BP ("12k"), each 30 yr long. The same, theoretical, 10Be production rate was used in each simulation to isolate the impact of climate on 10Be deposition. The changes are found to follow roughly the reduction in the greenhouse gas concentrations within the simulations. The 10k and 11k simulations produce a surface cooling which is symmetrically amplified in the 12k simulation. The precipitation rate is only slightly reduced at high latitudes, but there is a northward shift in the polar jet in the Northern Hemisphere, and the stratospheric westerly winds are significantly weakened. These changes occur where the sea ice change is largest in the deglaciation simulations. This leads to a longer residence time of 10Be in the stratosphere by 30 (10k and 11k) to 80 (12k) days, increasing the atmospheric concentrations (25–30% in 10k and 11k and 100% in 12k). Furthermore the shift of westerlies in the troposphere leads to an increase of tropospheric 10Be concentrations, especially at high latitudes. The contribution of dry deposition generally increases, but decreases where sea ice changes are largest. In total, the 10Be deposition rate changes by no more than 20% at mid- to high latitudes, but by up to 50% in the tropics. We conclude that on "long" time scales (a year to a few years), climatic influences on 10Be deposition remain small (less than 50%) even though atmospheric concentrations can vary significantly. Averaged over a longer period, all 10Be produced has to be deposited by mass conservation. This dominates over any climatic influences on 10Be deposition. Snow concentrations, however, do not follow mass conservation and can potentially be impacted more by climate due to precipitation changes. Quantifying the impact of deglacial climate modulation on 10Be in terms of preserving the solar signal locally is analysed in an accompanying paper (Heikkilä et al., 10Be in late deglacial climate simulated by ECHAM5-HAM – Part 2: Isolating the solar signal from 10Be deposition). © Author(s) 2013.
- Item10Be in late deglacial climate simulated by ECHAM5-HAM – Part 2: Isolating the solar signal from 10Be deposition(Copernicus Publications, 2014-04-01) Heikkilä, UE; Shi, X; Phipps, SJ; Smith, AMThis study investigates the effect of deglacial climate on the deposition of the solar proxy 10Be globally, and at two specific locations, the GRIP site at Summit, Central Greenland, and the Law Dome site in coastal Antarctica. The deglacial climate is represented by three 30 year time slice simulations of 10 000 BP (years before present = 1950 CE), 11 000 and 12 000 BP, compared with a preindustrial control simulation. The model used is the ECHAM5-HAM atmospheric aerosol–climate model, driven with sea-surface temperatures and sea ice cover simulated using the CSIRO Mk3L coupled climate system model. The focus is on isolating the 10Be production signal, driven by solar variability, from the weather- or climate-driven noise in the 10Be deposition flux during different stages of climate. The production signal varies at lower frequencies, dominated by the 11 year solar cycle within the 30 year timescale of these experiments. The climatic noise is of higher frequencies than 11 years during the 30 year period studied. We first apply empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to global 10Be deposition on the annual scale and find that the first principal component, consisting of the spatial pattern of mean 10Be deposition and the temporally varying solar signal, explains 64% of the variability. The following principal components are closely related to those of precipitation. Then, we apply ensemble empirical decomposition (EEMD) analysis to the time series of 10Be deposition at GRIP and at Law Dome, which is an effective method for adaptively decomposing the time series into different frequency components. The low-frequency components and the long-term trend represent production and have reduced noise compared to the entire frequency spectrum of the deposition. The high-frequency components represent climate-driven noise related to the seasonal cycle of e.g. precipitation and are closely connected to high frequencies of precipitation. These results firstly show that the 10Be atmospheric production signal is preserved in the deposition flux to surface even during climates very different from today's both in global data and at two specific locations. Secondly, noise can be effectively reduced from 10Be deposition data by simply applying the EOF analysis in the case of a reasonably large number of available data sets, or by decomposing the individual data sets to filter out high-frequency fluctuations. © Author(s) 2014.
- Item“114”-Type nitrides LnAl(Si4−xAlx)N7Oδ with unusual [AlN6] octahedral coordination(Wiley, 2017-02-28) Huang, S; Huang, Z; Cao, P; Zujovic, Z; Price, JR; Avdeev, M; Que, M; Suzuki, F; Kido, T; Ouyang, X; Kaji, H; Fang, M; Liu, YG; Gao, W; Söhnel, TAluminum–nitrogen six-fold octahedral coordination, [AlN6], is unusual and has only been seen in the high-pressure rocksalt-type aluminum nitride or some complex compounds. Herein we report novel nitrides LnAl(Si4−xAlx)N7Oδ (Ln=La, Sm), the first inorganic compounds with [AlN6] coordination prepared via non-high-pressure synthesis. Structure refinements of neutron powder diffraction and single-crystal X-ray diffraction data show that these compounds crystallize in the hexagonal Swedenborgite structure type with P63mc symmetry where Ln and Al atoms locate in anticuboctahedral and octahedral interstitials, respectively, between the triangular and Kagomé layers of [SiN4] tetrahedra. Solid-state NMR data of high-purity La-114 powders confirm the unusual [AlN6] coordination. These compounds are the first examples of the “33-114” sub-type in the “114” family. The additional site for over-stoichiometric oxygen in the structure of 114-type compounds was also identified. © 1999-2021 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Item119Sn MAS NMR and first-principles calculations for the investigation of disorder in stannate pyrochlores(Royal Society of Chemistry, 2011-01-14) Mitchell, MR; Reader, SW; Johnston, KE; Pickard, CJ; Whittle, KR; Ashbrook, SEThe local structure and cation disorder in Y2Ti2−xSnxO7 pyrochlores, materials proposed for the encapsulation of lanthanide- and actinide-bearing radioactive waste, is studied using 119Sn (I = 1/2) NMR spectroscopy. NMR provides an excellent probe of disorder, as it is sensitive to the atomic scale environment without the need for any long-range periodicity. However, the complex and overlapping spectral resonances that often result can be difficult to interpret. Here, we demonstrate how 119Sn DFT calculations can be used to aid the spectral interpretation and assignment, confirming that Sn occupies only the six-coordinate pyrochlore B site, and that the Sn chemical shift is sensitive to the number of Sn/Ti on the neighbouring B sites. Although distinct resonances are resolved experimentally when the Ti content is low, there is significant spectral overlap for Ti-rich compositions. We establish that this is a result of two competing contributions to the Sn chemical shift; an upfield shift resulting from the incorporation of the more polarizing Ti4+ cation onto the neighbouring B sites, and a concomitant downfield shift arising from the decrease in unit cell size. Despite the considerably easier spectral acquisition, the lower resolution in the 119Sn spectra hinders the extraction of the detailed structural information previously obtained using 89Y NMR. However, the spectra we obtain are consistent with a random distribution of Sn/Ti on the pyrochlore B sites. Finally, we consider whether an equilibrium structure has been achieved by investigating materials that have been annealed for different durations. © 2011, Royal Society of Chemistry
- Item12,000-Year-old Aboriginal rock art from the Kimberley region, Western Australia(American Association for Advancement of Science, 2020-02-05) Finch, D; Gleadow, AJM; Hergt, J; Levchenko, VA; Heaney, P; Veth, P; Harper, S; Ouzman, S; Myers, C; Green, HThe Kimberley region in Western Australia hosts one of the world’s most substantial bodies of indigenous rock art thought to extend in a series of stylistic or iconographic phases from the present day back into the Pleistocene. As with other rock art worldwide, the older styles have proven notoriously difficult to date quantitatively, requiring new scientific approaches. Here, we present the radiocarbon ages of 24 mud wasp nests that were either over or under pigment from 21 anthropomorphic motifs of the Gwion style (previously referred to as “Bradshaws”) from the middle of the relative stylistic sequence. We demonstrate that while one date suggests a minimum age of c. 17 ka for one motif, most of the dates support a hypothesis that these Gwion paintings were produced in a relatively narrow period around 12,000 years ago. © 2020 American Association for the Advancement of Science.
- Item14C analyses at the ANTARES AMS Centre: dating the log coffins of northwest Thailand(Elsevier, 1994-06-03) Hotchkis, MAC; Fink, D; Jacobsen, GE; Lawson, EM; Shying, ME; Smith, AM; Tuniz, C; Barbetti, M; Grave, P; Quan, HM; Head, JRecent results of 14C analyses at the ANTARES AMS Centre are presented. Test measurements of 14C blanks demonstrate an ultimate sensitivity of the order of 10−15 (14C/12C ratio). Measurements of unknowns have been made with a precision in the range 1–1.5% using a “slow cycling” mode of operation where the injection magnet field is changed to inject 14C and 13C alternately. Results are presented for a series of log coffins from cave burials in NW Thailand. © 1994 Elsevier B.V.
- Item14C in uranium and thorium minerals: a signature of cluster radioactivity?(Springer Nature, 1999-06-01) Bonetti, R; Guglielmetti, A; Poli, G; Sacchi, E; Fink, D; Hotchkis, MAC; Jacobsen, GE; Lawson, EM; Hua, Q; Smith, AM; Tuniz, CVarious uranium and thorium minerals have been analysed with accelerator mass spectrometry to determine their 14C content. It is found that, whenever the contribution from secondary reactions such as the 11B(α,p)14C is sufficiently low, the 14C concentration is consistent with that expected from 14C (spontaneous) cluster radioactivity from radium isotopes of the uranium and thorium natural series. © Springer-Verlag 1999
- Item14CH4 measurements in Greenland ice: investigating last glacial termination CH4 sources(American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 2009-04-24) Petrenko, VV; Smith, AM; Brook, EJ; Lowe, DC; Riedel, K; Brailsford, G; Hua, Q; Schaefer, H; Reeh, N; Weiss, RF; Etheridge, DM; Severinghaus, JPThe cause of a large increase of atmospheric methane concentration during the Younger Dryas-Preboreal abrupt climatic transition (~11,600 years ago) has been the subject of much debate. The carbon-14 (14C) content of methane (14CH4) should distinguish between wetland and clathrate contributions to this increase. We present measurements of 14CH4 in glacial ice, targeting this transition, performed by using ice samples obtained from an ablation site in west Greenland. Measured 14CH4 values were higher than predicted under any scenario. Sample 14CH4 appears to be elevated by direct cosmogenic 14C production in ice. 14C of CO was measured to better understand this process and correct the sample 14CH4. Corrected results suggest that wetland sources were likely responsible for the majority of the Younger Dryas-Preboreal CH4 rise. © 2009, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
- ItemThe 18 kDa translocator protein (peripheral benzodiazepine receptor) expression in the bone of normal, osteoprotegerin or low calcium diet treated mice(PLOS ONE, 2012-01-25) Kam, WWY; Meikle, SR; Dunstan, CR; Banati, RB; Blair, JM; Zheng, YThe presence of the translocator protein (TSPO), previously named as the mitochondrial or peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, in bone cells was studied in vitro and in situ using RT-qPCR, and receptor autoradiography using the selective TSPO ligand PK11195. In vitro, the TSPO is highly expressed in osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells. In situ, constitutive expression of TSPO is found in bone marrow and trabecular bone, e.g., spongiosa. Mice with a reduction of bone turnover induced by a 4-day treatment of osteoprotegerin reduces [3H]PK11195 binding in the spongiosa (320±128 Bq.mg−1, 499±106 Bq.mg−1 in saline-treated controls). In contrast, mice with an increase in bone turnover caused by a 4-day low calcium diet increases [3H]PK11195 binding in the spongiosa (615±90 Bq.mg−1). Further, our study includes technical feasibility data on [18F]fluoride microPET imaging of rodent bone with altered turnover. Despite [18F]fluoride having high uptake, the in vivo signal differences were small. Using a phantom model, we describe the spillover effect and partial volume loss that affect the quantitative microPET imaging of the small bone structures in experimental mouse models. In summary, we demonstrate the expression of TSPO in small rodent bone tissues, including osteoblasts and osteoclasts. A trend increase in TSPO expression was observed in the spongiosa from low to high bone turnover conditions. However, despite the potential utility of TSPO expression as an in vivo biomarker of bone turnover in experimental rodent models, our small animal PET imaging data using [18F]fluoride show that even under the condition of a good biological signal-to-noise ratio and high tracer uptake, the currently achievable instrument sensitivity and spatial resolution is unlikely to be sufficient to detect subtle differences in small structures, such as mouse bone. © 2012 Plos One
- Item[18F]-Flumazenil: a γ-aminobutyric acid A–specific PET radiotracer for the localisation of drug resistant temporal lobe epilepsy(Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 2013-07-15) Vivash, L; Grégoire, MC; Lau, EW; Ware, RE; Binns, D; Roselt, P; Bouilleret, V; Myers, DE; Cook, MJ; Hicks, RJ; O’Brien, TJStudies report that 11C-flumazenil (FMZ) PET more specifically localizes the epileptogenic zone in patients with medically refractory focal epilepsy than 18F-FDG PET. However, practical aspects of 11C use limit clinical application. We report a phase I/IIa study assessing the clinical use of 18F-FMZ PET for the localization of the epileptogenic zone in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Receptor binding was quantified using kinetic modeling that did not require arterial sampling. Methods: Dynamic 18F-FMZ PET and static interictal 18F-FDG PET scans were compared in healthy controls (n = 17 for 18F-FMZ and n = 20 for 18F-FDG) and TLE patients with mesial temporal sclerosis on MR imaging (MTS, n = 12) and with normal MR imaging (NL TLE, n = 19). Masked visual assessment of images was undertaken. Parametric images of 18F-FMZ binding potential (BPND) were generated using the simplified reference tissue model. Region-of-interest analysis on coregistered MR images and statistical parametric mapping were used to quantify 18F-FMZ BPND and 18F-FDG uptake in the temporal lobe. Results: The visual assessment of static standardized uptake value images showed 18F-FMZ PET to have high specificity (16/17 [94%]) and moderate sensitivity (21/31 [68%]) for the localization of the epileptogenic zone, with a more restricted abnormality than 18F-FDG PET. However, the 18F-FMZ standardized uptake value images were falsely localizing in 3 of 31 patients (10%). Region-of-interest analysis demonstrated reductions in ipsilateral hippocampal 18F-FMZ BPND in patients with either MTS or NL TLE, compared with controls subjects. Ipsilateral hippocampal 18F-FMZ BPND was independent of both hippocampal volume and 18F-FDG uptake, whereas ipsilateral hippocampal volume was correlated with 18F-FDG uptake (r2 = 0.69, P < 0.0001). Statistical parametric mapping analysis demonstrated decreased uptake in 14 of 31 (45%) cases with 18F-FMZ PET and 18 of 29 (62%) with 18F-FDG PET. Cluster size was significantly smaller on 18F-FMZ than 18F-FDG images (37 vs. 160 voxels, P < 0.01). Conclusion: 18F-FMZ PET has potential as a clinical tool for the localization of the epileptogenic zone in the presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant TLE, providing information complementary to 18F-FDG PET, with a more restricted region of abnormality. © 2013 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.
- Item[18F]Ethenesulfonyl fluoride as a practical radiofluoride relay reagent(John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2019-04-11) Zhang, B; Fraser, BH; Klenner, MA; Chen, Z; Liang, SH; Massi, M; Robinson, AJ; Pascali, GFluorine-18 is the most utilized radioisotope in positron emission tomography (PET), but the wide application of fluorine-18 radiopharmaceuticals is hindered by its challenging labelling conditions. As such, many potentially important radiotracers remain underutilized. Herein, we describe the use of [18F]ethenesulfonyl fluoride (ESF) as a novel radiofluoride relay reagent that allows radiofluorination reactions to be performed in minimally equipped satellite nuclear medicine centres. [18F]ESF has a simple and reliable production route and can be stored on inert cartridges. The cartridges can then be shipped remotely and the trapped [18F]ESF can be liberated by simple solvent elution. We have tested 18 radiolabelling precursors, inclusive of model and clinically used structures, and most precursors have demonstrated comparable radiofluorination efficiencies to those obtained using a conventionally dried [18F]fluoride source. © 2019 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.
- Item[18F]Fluorination optimisation and the fully automated production of [18F]MEL050 using a microfluidic system(CSIRO Publishing, 2014-06-06) Matesic, L; Kallinen, A; Wyatt, NA; Pham, TQ; Greguric, I; Pascali, GThe [18F]radiolabelling of the melanin-targeting positron-emission tomography radiotracer [18F]MEL050 was rapidly optimised using a commercial continuous-flow microfluidic system. The optimal [18F]fluorination incorporation conditions were then translated to production-scale experiments (35–150 GBq) suitable for preclinical imaging, complete with automated HPLC–solid phase extraction purification and formulation. [18F]MEL050 was obtained in 43 ± 10 % radiochemical yield in ~50 min. © 2015 CSIRO Publishing.
- Item[18F]Radiochemistry using the nano tek microfluidic synthesis system(CSIRO Publishing, 2013-08-21) Matesic, LThe use of continuous-flow microfluidics in radiochemistry has only emerged in recent years.[1,2] Microfluidic devices feature channels with internal diameters of 10–300 µm, which process fluids with high speed and precision, resulting in improved mixing efficiency. Other advantages of microfluidic technology include shorter reaction times, greater radiochemical yield (RCY), and reduced consumption of reagents. Recently, the first account of a positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer for human use produced on a batch-mode microfluidics system was reported. Currently, the most employed commercial microfluidic system in radiochemistry is the NanoTek Microfluidic Synthesis System manufactured by Advion (Fig. 1) and its components and method of operation have been described in detail previously. Although the system has been applied to radiochemical syntheses using radioisotopes such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, and technetium-99m, the overwhelming majority of research using the NanoTek system has been directed towards fluorine-18 (18F, t1/2 = 109.7 min) radiochemistry. Some recent, noteworthy examples are highlighted below and their results compared with conventional radiochemical methods. © 2013 CSIRO Publishing
- ItemThe 18 kDa translocator protein, microglia and neuroinflammation(Wiley, 2014-10-26) Liu, GJ; Middleton, RJ; Hatty, CR; Kam, WWY; Chan, RHY; Pham, TQ; Harrison-Brown, M; Dodson, E; Veale, K; Banati, RBThe 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), previously known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, is expressed in the injured brain. It has become known as an imaging marker of “neuroinflammation” indicating active disease, and is best interpreted as a nondiagnostic biomarker and disease staging tool that refers to histopathology rather than disease etiology. The therapeutic potential of TSPO as a drug target is mostly based on the understanding that it is an outer mitochondrial membrane protein required for the translocation of cholesterol, which thus regulates the rate of steroid synthesis. This pivotal role together with the evolutionary conservation of TSPO has underpinned the belief that any loss or mutation of TSPO should be associated with significant physiological deficits or be outright incompatible with life. However, against prediction, full Tspo knockout mice are viable and across their lifespan do not show the phenotype expected if cholesterol transport and steroid synthesis were significantly impaired. Thus, the “translocation” function of TSPO remains to be better substantiated. Here, we discuss the literature before and after the introduction of the new nomenclature for TSPO and review some of the newer findings. In light of the controversy surrounding the function of TSPO, we emphasize the continued importance of identifying compounds with confirmed selectivity and suggest that TSPO expression is analyzed within specific disease contexts rather than merely equated with the reified concept of “neuroinflammation.” © 2014 The Authors
- ItemThe 1st ANSTO-AINSE Workshop on Nuclear Techniques for Cultural Heritage(Taylor & Francis Online, 2019-05-24) Salvemini, F; White, R; McIntyre, GJ; Bevitt, JJ; Cubbin, KNo abstract available.
- ItemA 2 million year glacial chronology of the Hatherton Glacier, Antarctica and implications for the size of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet at the Last Glacial Maximum(Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd, 2014-01-01) Joy, K; Fink, D; Storey, BC; Atkins, CA series of distinct glacial deposits flanking the margins of the upper Hatherton Glacier, an outlet glacier in the central Transantarctic Mountains, are used to constrain the behaviour of the Antarctic ice-sheets. Cosmogenic exposure ages of 18 erratics from four glacial drifts covering the ice free Dubris and Bibra valleys, range in age from 5 to 1997 ka. Our results document four glacial advance and retreat events superimposed on an overall long-term ice thickness reduction of about 500 m since the mid-Pleistocene. The lack of field evidence and absence of LGM exposure ages in the glacial deposits of the Hatherton Glacier supports our conclusion that at the LGM the East Antarctic Ice Sheet was of similar size, or may have been slightly smaller, than present. Minimum exposure ages from the oldest two glacial events, represented by the Isca and Danum drifts, are similar to 1-2 Ma and similar to 0.5 Ma respectively. The Britannia-II Drift, previously assumed to mark the maximum extent of the Last Glacial Maximum advance, has a mean Be-10 age of 126 +/- 3.2 ka (n = 5). Ages from the younger Britannia-I Drift suggest that since the mid-Holocene (6.5 +/- 1.2 ka, n = 5), approximately 200 m of additional ice has been lost. © 2014, Elsevier Ltd.
- ItemThe 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami — three years on(Elsevier, 2014-12) Goto, K; Ikehara, K; Goff, JR; Chagué-Goff, C; Jaffe, BEThe 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami that devastated the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan was a turning point for modern research. As a result of this event it was recognized that paleotsunami research is vital to help understand the size and recurrence interval of low-frequency large tsunamis. This paper reviews the progress of geological research on the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami and summarizes new questions that are arising out of this work. For example, recent work suggests that the landward extent and thickness of the sandy deposit, as well as the presence or absence of marine microfossils in the sediment are most likely to be mainly controlled by the initial wave properties, sediment source, offshore bathymetry and onshore topography. This in turn implies that there are certain relationships between the characteristics of a tsunami deposit and the wave properties and it may be possible to reconstruct the latter from the deposits. Offshore tsunami deposits related to the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami have also been well described. This recent research indicates that sedimentation and erosion in inner bay and open ocean (~ 20 m water depth) locations can be in the order of several meters, suggesting that the tsunami shear force was strong in the nearshore zone. On the other hand, sandy to muddy deposits a few centimeters thick were observed at about 100 to 6000 m water depth. It is likely that the tsunami resulted in resuspension of sea bottom sediments and that suspended material flowed downslope as a turbidity current or suspended flow, although many authors recognize the possibility that strong earthquake groundshaking might have also generated turbidity currents. Studies of the 2011 Tohoku-oki event have led researchers back to two of the fundamental issues of tsunami geology: understanding the linkage between onshore and offshore sedimentation and erosion, and establishing identification criteria for tsunami deposits. Moreover though, beyond the issue of simple tsunami geology, it is important for all researchers to communicate with governments and the general public in order to reduce future casualties by using risk assessments based on our understanding of infrequent large tsunamis.© 2014, Elsevier B.V.
- Item222Rn-calibrated mercury fluxes from terrestrial surface of southern Africa(European Geosciences Union, 2013-01-01) Slemr, F; Brunke, EG; Whittlestone, S; Zahorowski, W; Ebinghaus, R; Kock, HH; Labuschagne, CGaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and 222Rn, a radioactive gas of primarily terrestrial origin with a half-life of 3.8 days, have been measured simultaneously at Cape Point, South Africa, since March 2007. Between March 2007 and December 2011, altogether 191 events with high 222Rn concentrations were identified. GEM correlated with 222Rn in 94 of the events and was constant during almost all the remaining events without significant correlation. The average GEM / 222Rn flux ratio of all events including the non-significant ones was −0.0001 with a standard error of ±0.0030 pg mBq−1. Weighted with the event duration, the average GEM / 222Rn flux ratio was −0.0048 ± 0.0011 pg mBq−1. With an emission rate of 1.1 222Rn atoms cm−2 s−1 and a correction for the transport time, this flux ratio corresponds to a radon-calibrated flux of about −0.54 ng GEM m−2 h−1 with a standard error of ±0.13 ng GEM m−2 h−1 (n = 191). With wet deposition, which is not included in this estimate, the terrestrial surface of southern Africa seems to be a net mercury sink of about −1.55 ng m−2 h−1. The additional contribution of an unknown but presumably significant deposition of reactive gaseous mercury would further increase this sink.© 2013, European Geosciences Union