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- Item10Be concentrations in snow at Law Dome, Antarctica following the 29 October 20 and 20 January 2005 solar cosmic ray events(World Scientific, 2009-08) Pedro, JB; Smith, AM; Duldig, ML; Klekociuk, AR; Simon, KJ; Curran, MAJ; van Ommen, TD; Fink, D; Morgan, VI; Galton-Fenzi, BKRecent model calculations have attempted to quantify the contribution of major energetic solar cosmic ray (SCR) events to 10Be production.1,2 In this study we compare modeled 10Be production by SCR events to measured 10Be concentrations in a Law Dome snow pit record. The snow pit record spans 2.7 years, providing a quasi-monthly 10Be sampling resolution which overlaps with the SCR events of 29 Oct 2003 and 20 Jan 2005. These events were calculated to increase monthly 10Be production in the polar atmosphere (>65° S geomagnetic latitude) by ~60% and ~120% above the GCR background, respectively2. A strong peak in 10Be concentrations (>4σ above the 2.7 y mean value) was observed ~1 month after the 20 Jan 2005 event. By contrast, no signal in 10Be concentrations was observed following the weaker 29 Oct 2003 series of events. The concentration of 10Be in ice core records involves interplay between production, transport, and deposition processes. We used a particle dispersion model to assess vertical and meridional transport of aerosols from the lower stratosphere where SCR production of 10Be is expected to occur, to the troposphere from where deposition to the ice sheet occurs. Model results suggested that a coherent SCR production signal could be transported to the troposphere within weeks to months following both SCR events. We argue that only the 20 Jan 2005 SCR event was observed in measured concentrations due to favorable atmospheric transport, relatively high production yield compared to the 29 Oct 2003 event, and a relatively high level of precipitation in the Law Dome region in the month following the event. This result encourages further examination of SCR signals in 10Be ice core data. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing
- Item14.30 An introduction to dating techniques: a guide for geomorphologists(Elsevier, 2013-01-01) Sloss, CR; Westaway, KE; Hua, Q; Murray-Wallace, CVThis chapter provides researchers with a guide to some of the types of dating techniques that can be used in geo- morphological investigations and issues that need to be addressed when using geochronological data, specifically issues relating to accuracy and precision. This chapter also introduces the ‘types’ of dating methods that are commonly used in geomorphological studies. This includes sidereal, isotopic, radiogenic, and chemical dating methods. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
- ItemAccelerator mass spectrometry ultrasensitive analysis for global science(CRC Press, 1998-03-25) Tuniz, C; Kutschera, W; Fink, D; Herzog, GF; Bird, JRThis extensive undertaking, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, conducts an elaborate and comprehensive summary of one of the foremost catalysts of progress in scientific research. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), an innovative analytical technique, measures rare atoms at unprecedented levels of sensitivity, revolutionizing the science of radiocarbon dating and accessing new natural radioisotopes as environmental tracers and chronometers. This book demonstrates how AMS is applied in the studies of extraterrestrial materials, the earth sciences, the future of the global environment, and the history of mankind. This compendium also highlights the significant impact of AMS on several fields of scientific investigation, spurring remarkable studies in global climate change, ancient artifacts, pollution, nuclear safeguards, geochronology, and materials characterization. The myriad of sample types and variety of applications in this examination include: Meteorites from Mars Ancient air trapped in Antarctic ice The Shroud of Turin The dating of human bones The colonization of the Americas and Australia Ancient rock art The crown of Charlemagne Cancerogenic effects of cooked meat The consequences of the Chernobyl accident The role of aluminum in Alzheimer's Disease This unique edition has compiled the diverse set of scientific literature into a single volume, suitable as a text or resource on the major AMS-related outcomes, issues, and methods.
- ItemAdvanced nuclear reactor materials research in Australia: high temperature properties, radiation effects and corrosion behaviour(IAEA, 2020-05) Muránsky, O; Edwards, LThe Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) and its predecessor, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission has a long history in nuclear-based research and development. This is continuing through Australia’s recent membership of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). As Australia’s implementing agent within GIF, ANSTO is focussing the majority of its research on nuclear materials engineering including structural performance evaluations in complex nuclear environments, advanced manufacturing, and system reliability assessment. Although this work concentrates on the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) and Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) systems most of the research outcomes are applicable to a wide range of advanced nuclear reactor systems.
- ItemAlkali metal cation and proton conductors: relationships between composition, crystal structure, and properties(Wiley, 2009-07-15) Avdeev, M; Nalbandyan, VB; Shukaev, ILThis chapter contains sections titled: Principles of Classification, and General Comments; Crystal‐Chemistry Factors Affecting Cationic Conductivity; Crystal Structural Screening and Studies of Conduction Paths; Conductors with Large Alkali Ions; Lithium Ion Conductors; Proton Conductors; References. © 2009 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA
- ItemAppendix 2: Metal crystallography(CSIRO Publishing, 2014-10-01) Thorogood, GJThe micrograph in Fig. App 2.1, from the back plate, is a typical example of grain deformation due to the metal being worked below its recrystallization temperature (see also Figs App 2.2, App 2.3). An acetate replica taken edge-on from the breast plate (see photo), however, showed a banded structure. This is due to the original rolling of the metal and indicates that the bulk of the metal has not been heated above the recrystallization temperature. © 2014 CSIRO Publishing.
- ItemApplication of small-angle x-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering to fat mimetics(John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2023-05-06) Gilbert, EPSmall-angle and ultra-small angle scattering are powerful techniques that are able to reveal structure on the nanometre to micron length scales. These methods are naturally complementary to other materials characterisation approaches including various microscopies but with the advantage that minimal sample preparation is required enabling measurement of materials to be conducted in their native state. Due to the length scales probed, these methods have considerable application in the study of oleogels where the nano- and micro-structures formed directly impact macroscopic gel properties. This chapter describes small-angle and ultra-small angle scattering techniques and the detailed information that can be obtained from their application with a particular focus on oleogels. The chapter describes the fundamentals of the method, instrumentation, experimental design and data collection, as well as the rich information that can be extracted from a well-designed experiment. Differences between X-ray and neutron probes for small-angle scattering are also discussed and, relevant to the latter, the benefits of selective deuteration and contrast variation are highlighted. This is followed by a lengthy discussion of specific recent examples covering the wide range of oleogel systems. The chapter concludes with some suggestions for future opportunities in the application of these methods. © 2023 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- ItemApplication of stable isotopic techniques to wetlands conservation(Sydney Olympic Park Authority, 2013-01-01) Mazumder, DIdentification of food chain linkages between high trophic order species (particularly those of commercial and recreational importance) and different wetland resources (e.g. saltmarsh, mangrove and seagrass) is fundamental to resource management. The source of energy and trophic connectivity among species in the ecosystem can be quantified using stable isotopic techniques. Stable nitrogen isotopes can be used for tracking of pollutant derived from urban effluent or other anthropogenic sources that contribute to eutrophication and other management issues in aquatic environment. Analysis of non-radioactive, naturally occurring carbon and nitrogen isotopes is one of the most powerful techniques that can be considered in clarifying management questions related to wetland conservation.
- ItemAssessment of neuroinflammation in transferred EAE via a translocator protein ligand(IntechOpen, 2012-02-03) Mattner, F; Staykova, M; Callaghan, PD; Berghofer, PJ; Ballantyne, P; Grégoire, MC; Fordham, S; Pham, TQ; Rahardjo, GL; Jackson, TW; Linares, D; Katsifis, ANeuroinflammation is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis (MS) (Doorduin et al., 2008). MS has been considered a T cell-mediated autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration and myelin destruction (Hauser et al., 1986) and focal demyelinated lesions in the white matter are the traditional hallmarks of MS. However more recent evidence suggests more widespread damage to the brain and spinal cord, to areas of white matter distant from the inflammatory lesions and demyelination of deep and cortical grey matter (McFarland & Martin, 2007). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an extensively used model of T-cell mediated CNS inflammation; modelling disease processes involved in MS. EAE can be induced in several species by immunization with myelin antigens or via adoptive transfer of myelin-reactive T cells. The models of EAE in rodents [actively induced and transferred] provide information about different phases [inflammation, demyelination and remyelination] and types [monophasic, chronic-relapsing and chronic-progressive] of the human disease multiple sclerosis and a vast amount of clinical and histopathologic data has been accumulated through the decades. A key aim of current investigations is developing the ability to recognise the early symptoms of the disease and to follow its course and response to treatment. Molecular imaging is a rapidly evolving field of research that involves the evaluation of biochemical and physiological processes utilising specific, radioactive, fluorescent and magnetic resonance imaging probes. However, it is positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) which, due to their exquisite sensitivity involving specifically designed radiolabelled molecules, that is leading the way in molecular imaging and has greatly enabled the non-invasive “visualisation” of many diseases in both animal models and humans. Furthermore, PET and SPECT molecular imaging are providing invaluable imaging data based on a biochemical-molecular biology interaction rather than from the traditional anatomical view. Increasingly, PET and SPECT radiotracers have been exploited to study or identify molecular biomarkers of disease, monitor disease progression, determining the effects of a drug on a particular pathology and assess the pharmacokinetic behaviour of pharmaceuticals in vivo. Significantly, these new imaging systems provide investigators with an unprecedented ability to examine and measure in vivo biological and pharmacological processes over time in the same animals thus reducing experimental variability, time and costs. Molecular imaging based on the radiotracer principle allows chemical processes ranging from cellular events, to cellular communication and interaction in their environment, to the organisation and function of complete tissue and organs to be studied in real time without perturbation. One of the key benefits of molecular imaging is a technique that allows longitudinal studies vital for monitoring intra-individual progression in disease, or regression with supplementary pharmacotherapies. This is key in animal models of diseases such as MS, where there is significant intra-individual variability in the disease course and severity. Recent investigations have proposed the translocator protein (TSPO; 18 kDa), also known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), as a molecular target for imaging neuroinflammation (Chen & Guilarte, 2008; Doorduin et al., 2008; Papadopoulos et al., 2006). TSPO (18 kDa) is a multimeric protein consisting of five transmembrane helices, which, in association with a 32 kDa subunit that functions as a voltage dependent anion channel and a 30 kDa subunit that functions as an adenine nucleotide carrier forms part of a hetero-oligomeric complex (McEnery et al., 1992) responsible for cholesterol, heme and calcium transport in specific tissue. TSPO is primarily located on the outer mitochondrial membrane and is predominantly expressed in visceral organs (kidney, heart) and the steroid hormone producing cells of the adrenal cortex, testis and ovaries. In the central nervous system (CNS), TSPO is sparsely expressed under normal physiological conditions, however its expression is significantly upregulated following CNS injury (Chen et al., 2004; Papadopoulos et al., 1997; Venneti et al., 2006; Venneti, et al., 2008). Several studies have identified activated glial cells as the cells responsible for TSPO upregulation in inflamed brain tissue, both in humans and in experimental models (Mattner et al., 2011; Myers et al., 1991a; Stephenson et al., 1995; Vowinckel et al., 1997) and the TSPO ligand [11C]-PK11195 was one of the first PET ligands used for imaging activated microglia in various neurodegenerative diseases (Venneti et al., 2006). Although [11C]-(R)-PK11195 is widely used for imaging of microglia, its considerable high plasma protein binding, high levels of nonspecific binding, relatively poor blood–brain barrier permeability and short half-life, limits its use in brain imaging (Chauveau et al., 2008). Recently, alternative PET radioligands for TSPO including the phenoxyarylacetamide derivative [11C]-DAA1106 and its analogues (Gulyas et al., 2009; Takano et al., 2010; Venneti et al., 2008), the imidazopyridines (PBR111) and its analogues (Boutin et al., 2007a; Fookes et al., 2008) and the pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derivatives [18F]-DPA-714 and [11C]-DPA-713 (Boutin et al., 2007b; James et al., 2008) have been investigated. In addition to imaging with PET, recent advances in new generation of hybrid SPECT imaging systems enabling increased resolution and morphological documentation with associated computed tomography have been made for use clinically and preclinically. These advances have created a need and an opportunity for SPECT tracers; particularly those incorporating the longer lived radiotracer iodine-123 (t ½ = 13.2 h), to facilitate extended longitudinal imaging studies. In this study the recently developed high-affinity TSPO, SPECT ligand, 6-chloro-2-(4′-iodophenyl)-3-(N,N-diethyl)-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-acetamide or CLINDE , was used to explore the expression of activated glia in a model of transferred EAE (tEAE). [123I]-CLINDE has demonstrated its potency and specificity for TSPO binding, its ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and suitable pharmacokinetics for SPECT imaging studies (Mattner et al., 2008). It has also been shown that [123I]-CLINDE was able to detect in vivo inflammatory processes characterized by increased density of TSPO in several animal models (Arlicot et al., 2008; Arlicot et al., 2010; Mattner et al., 2005; Mattner et al., 2011; Song et al., 2010), thus representing a promising SPECT radiotracer for imaging neuroinflammation. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of [123I]-CLINDE to detect and quantify the activated glia and consequently correlate the intensity of TSPO upregulation with the severity of disease in a model of tEAE. © 2022 IntechOpen (Open Access).
- ItemAustralian physical environment(Oxford University Press (OUP), 2008-07-11) Bridgman, H; Dragovich, D; Dodson, JRThe Australian Physical Environment uses a systems approach to introduce students to the three critical aspects of the physical environment: the atmosphere, the biosphere, and the lithosphere. International and national comparative examples are used to place Australia's unique environment within a global context. © 2008, Oxford University Press (OUP)
- ItemBenchmark consolidated results against experimental data from SPERT IV statics(International Atomic Energy Agency, 2019-08) Day, SE; Braoudakis, G; Wong, LThe IAEA CRP (CRP 1496) on ‘Benchmarking, against Experimental Data, of the Neutronic and Thermalhydraulic Computational Methods and Tools for Operation and Safety Analysis for Research Reactors’ provides a unique opportunity to benchmark and compare the accuracy and efficiency of both off-the-shelf and locally developed computational tools to a wide set of experimental research reactor benchmark analysis. In the scope of this project, various analysis groups have evaluated the SPERT IV benchmark analysis – consisting of a variety of commissioning experiments and multiple sets of Reactivity Insertion Accident (RIA) measurements. This report is focused on the commissioning experiments and associated measurements, referred to herein as the ‘Statics’ or neutronic section of the SPERT IV benchmark analysis. It summarizes and compares the analysis methodologies adopted, the code systems employed, and the simulation results generated by the various analysis groups. A comparison of the computational results to available experimental results is also provided in this report. © 2019 The Authors
- ItemBiogeography of kwongan: origins, diversity, endemism and vegetation patterns(The University of Western Australia Publishing, 2014-01-01) Mucina, L; Laliberté, E; Thiele, K; Dodson, JR; Harvey, JPlant Life on the Sandplains in Southwest Australia is an entirely new venture and is not an update of the earlier book on a similar topic edited and produced some thirty years ago by John Beard and myself. Firstly, it embraces a far broader range of topics, themes and conceptual issues, and features chapters on plant–animal interactions, conservation, phylogenetics and Aboriginal use of plants. Secondly, it employs almost three times the number of authors, including several new postgraduate and early-career scientists and, serendipitously, only a few of the old brigade commissioned for the earlier book! Thirdly, it covers a wide variety of approaches, methodologies and techniques, proving how well the contributors are using those state-of-the art tools which are so integral to current biological research. Finally, the standard of presentation of visual material and the ‘reader-friendly’ approach is exemplary. Without doubt, the authors and publishers have taken full advantage of the extraordinary escalation in publishing techniques over the past few decades.
- ItemBiomedical applications of accelerator mass spectrometry(Elsevier, 2010-07-30) Fifield, LK; Fink, DNo abstract available.
- ItemCeramic host phases for nuclear waste remediation(John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2018-01-12) Lumpkin, GRThis chapter gives a summary of the various types of ceramic nuclear waste forms that have been developed, to various levels, either as alternatives to borosilicate glass for high-level waste (HLW) or as special-purpose materials for separated HLW or legacy wastes. These materials have been designed with a number of criteria in mind, such as compatibility with geological environments, high durability in aqueous fluids, and resistance to changes in properties due to radiation damage, and high waste loadings. In nuclear systems, the main sources of radiation damage include neutrons and alpha, beta, and gamma radiation emitted from radioactive elements. A series of molecular dynamics (MD) studies of the fundamental properties of rutile in relation to radiation tolerance have been reported. Although rutile is normally used as an inert component in nuclear waste forms, it has the capacity to serve as a host phase for radionuclides under the appropriate conditions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
- ItemCeramic waste forms(Elsevier, 2012-02-01) Vance, ERFor nearly 40 years, ceramics have been commonly seen to be competitors to the baseline borosilicate glass option for the immobilization of high- and intermediate-level nuclear waste. However, it is now increasingly clear that the wide variety of extant nuclear wastes will ensure that both glasses and ceramics will have very significant roles to play in the immobilization of nuclear wastes and thus confirm one of the criteria of sustainability for nuclear power production. Currently, hot isostatic pressing technology is making a strong impression as a very advantageous processing technique for the consolidation of ceramics and glass–ceramics for nuclear waste immobilization. Copyright © 2012, Elsevier
- ItemChanging climates, earth systems and society(Springer, 2010-09-29) Dodson, JRThe book covers state-of-the-art considerations on how climate change has and will deliver impacts on major globalised biophysical and societal themes that will affect the way the world functions. Human activity has resulted in changes to atmospheric chemistry and land cover, and caused serious decline in biodiversity. Modifying biogeochemical cycles leads to complex feedbacks. The future climate will have impact on food security and agriculture, water supply and quality, storm and cyclone frequency, shoreline stability, biodiversity and the future of biological resources. Earth scientists might be asked to forecast any potential abrupt or environmental surprises. A sound knowledge of the Earth System will improve the chances of achieving this, by developing climate models that will reduce the degree of uncertainty in regional climate prediction. © 2010, Springer. The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com
- ItemCharacterisation of natural substrates with regard to application of surface complexation models(OECD, 2001) Waite, TD; Fenton, BR; Payne, TE; Lumpkin, GR; Davis, JA; McBeath, MWhile good correspondence between laboratory sorption data and surface complexation modelling results has been obtained for single oxide phase, much poorer correspondence has been obtained for natural substrates. This result arises, at least in part, from the difficulty in ascertaining the identity of sorbing surfaces and in assigning appropriate values for sorbing surface site concentrations. In an attempt to clarify the nature of possible sorbing phases, we have used a variety of techniques to investigate the surfaces of natural solid substrates from the Koongarra weathered zone. Based on insights gained from the surface characterisation studies, we have then proceeded to assess the applicability of various surface complexation modelling approaches as applied to U(VI) uptake. © 2001 OECD
- ItemCharacteristic cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in relict surfaces of formerly glaciated regions(Wiley, 2006-08-21) Stroeven, AP; Harbor, J; Fabel, D; Kleman, J; Hättestrand, C; Elmore, D; Fink, DThis chapter contains sections titled: Significance of relict surfaces Characteristic cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in relict surfaces Conclusions © 2006 by Blackwell Science Ltd