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- ItemInterface phenomena in synroc, a titanate-based nuclear waste ceramic(Elsevier, 1995) Vance, ER; Ball, CJ; Blackford, MG; Day, RA; Lumpkin, GR; Smith, KL; Hart, KP; McGlinn, PJ; Thorogood, GJSeveral aspects of Synroc which fall into the broad class of interface phenomena are discussed. These are radiation damage processes which give rise to interfaces between damage tracks and neighbouring unirradiated material, intergranular films which have deleterious effects on chemical durability, and aqueous leaching of Synroc which takes place primarily at the interface between the solid and groundwater. © 1995 Elsevier B.V.
- ItemUranium VI adsorption on model minerals: controlling factors and surface complexation modeling(Elsevier, 1998) Payne, TE; Lumpkin, GR; Waite, TDUranium VI sorption on ferrihydrite and kaolinite is influenced by a large number of factors, including pH, ionic strength, partial pressure of CO2, adsorbent loading, total amount of U present, and the presence of ligands such as phosphate and humic acid. The effect of complexing ligands may be to enhance or reduce U uptake. The adsorption model being used for ferrihydrite is a surface complexation model with a diffuse double layer, and both strong and weak sites for U sorption. In terms of the amount of U sorbed per gram of adsorbent, U uptake on kaolinites KGa-1 and KGa-1B is much weaker than U uptake on ferrihydrite under similar experimental conditions. Titanium-rich impurity phases play a major role in the sorption of U by these standard kaolinites. Trace impurities and mineral coatings such as ferrihydrite can play a dominant role in determining U sorption in both environmental and model systems. © 1998 Elsevier Inc.
- ItemAccelerator mass spectrometry ultrasensitive analysis for global science(CRC Press, 1998-03-25) Tuniz, C; Kutschera, W; Fink, D; Herzog, GF; Bird, JRThis extensive undertaking, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, conducts an elaborate and comprehensive summary of one of the foremost catalysts of progress in scientific research. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), an innovative analytical technique, measures rare atoms at unprecedented levels of sensitivity, revolutionizing the science of radiocarbon dating and accessing new natural radioisotopes as environmental tracers and chronometers. This book demonstrates how AMS is applied in the studies of extraterrestrial materials, the earth sciences, the future of the global environment, and the history of mankind. This compendium also highlights the significant impact of AMS on several fields of scientific investigation, spurring remarkable studies in global climate change, ancient artifacts, pollution, nuclear safeguards, geochronology, and materials characterization. The myriad of sample types and variety of applications in this examination include: Meteorites from Mars Ancient air trapped in Antarctic ice The Shroud of Turin The dating of human bones The colonization of the Americas and Australia Ancient rock art The crown of Charlemagne Cancerogenic effects of cooked meat The consequences of the Chernobyl accident The role of aluminum in Alzheimer's Disease This unique edition has compiled the diverse set of scientific literature into a single volume, suitable as a text or resource on the major AMS-related outcomes, issues, and methods.
- ItemCharacterisation of natural substrates with regard to application of surface complexation models(OECD, 2001) Waite, TD; Fenton, BR; Payne, TE; Lumpkin, GR; Davis, JA; McBeath, MWhile good correspondence between laboratory sorption data and surface complexation modelling results has been obtained for single oxide phase, much poorer correspondence has been obtained for natural substrates. This result arises, at least in part, from the difficulty in ascertaining the identity of sorbing surfaces and in assigning appropriate values for sorbing surface site concentrations. In an attempt to clarify the nature of possible sorbing phases, we have used a variety of techniques to investigate the surfaces of natural solid substrates from the Koongarra weathered zone. Based on insights gained from the surface characterisation studies, we have then proceeded to assess the applicability of various surface complexation modelling approaches as applied to U(VI) uptake. © 2001 OECD
- ItemMechanical stability of a Ti02 coating deposited on a polycarbonate substrate(Routledge, 2005) Ignat, M; Getin, S; Latella, BA; Barbé, CJ; Triani, GThe demands imposed on mechanical durability of film-substrate systems in many leading technologies (particularly microelectronics, photonics and biomaterials) are becoming more stringent and, thus, associated problems have to be understood and solved. Film-substrate systems are subjected to internal stresses, caused by thermoelastic mismatch, or to external mechanical stresses applied monotonically or cyclically. When reaching critical levels, these stresses may activate damage mechanisms such as cracking and de-adhesion of the film. Identifying these failures and understanding the critical conditions which cause them is essential, prior to any technological application of the system. © 2005 CRC Press
- ItemRadiocarbon dating of Kharosthi fragments from the Schøyen and senior manuscript collections(Hermes Publishing, 2006) Allon, M; Salomon, R; Jacobsen, GE; Zoppi, U
- ItemSlow, patchy landscape evolution in northern Sweden despite repeated ice sheet glaciation(Geological Society of America, 2006-01-01) Stroeven, AP; Harbor, J; Fabel, D; Kleman, J; Hättestrand, C; Elmore, D; Fink, D; Fredin, OThe conventional assumption that erosion by ice sheets is pervasive and effective in landscape evolution is tested in northern Sweden using geomorphic mapping and cosmogenic nuclide analyses of formerly glaciated surfaces. The following evidence indicates that recent glaciations in this region have produced only slow and patchy landscape evolution: (1) Geomorphic mapping shows that at least 20% of the repeatedly glaciated study region in the northern Swedish mountains has landforms that are relict, i.e., clearly nonglacial in origin. (2) The contrast between cosmogenic apparent exposure ages from relict landforms in the northern Swedish mountains and from overlying glacial erratics and juxtaposed glacially eroded bedrock surfaces, which are consistent with last deglaciation, implies that the relict landforms have been preserved through multiple glacial cycles. (3) Apparent 10Be and 26Al exposure ages for tor summit bedrock surfaces in the northern Swedish lowlands reveal that these relict landforms have survived at least eleven exposure and ten burial events with little or no erosion over the past ∼1 m.y. (4) The northern Swedish lowland and mountains are primarily covered by glacial landforms. However geomorphic mapping suggests that even these landforms may have undergone limited erosion during the last glacial cycle. Cosmogenic 10Be and 36Cl data from what appear to be heavily scoured areas in one glacial corridor indicate erosion of only ∼2 ± 0.4 m of bedrock during the last glaciation. These results suggest that in some areas the overall modification produced by ice sheets may be more restricted than previously thought, or it has occurred preferentially during earlier Quaternary glacial periods. © 2020 GeoScienceWorld
- ItemData report: Radiocarbon dating and sedimentation rates for Holocene-upper Pleistocene sediments, eastern equatorial pacific and Peru continental margin(International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP), 2006-06-19) Skilbeck, CG; Fink, DAs part of a wider paleoclimate and paleoceanographic study of Holocene–upper Pleistocene laminated sediments from the eastern equatorial Pacific and Peru continental margin, we completed 32 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dates from cores recovered during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 201. Sample preparation and measurement were carried out at the ANTARES AMS facility, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), in Sydney, Australia (Lawson et al., 2000; Fink et al., 2004). Although the sediments are predominantly diatomaceous oozes (D'Hondt, Jørgensen, Miller, et al., 2003), they contain sufficient inorganic (e.g., foraminifer tests and nannofossil plates) and organic (Meister et al., this volume) carbon to allow 14C dating. These dates permitted us to reconstruct a history of sediment accumulation over the past 20 k.y., particularly on the Peru continental margin.
- ItemCharacteristic cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in relict surfaces of formerly glaciated regions(Wiley, 2006-08-21) Stroeven, AP; Harbor, J; Fabel, D; Kleman, J; Hättestrand, C; Elmore, D; Fink, DThis chapter contains sections titled: Significance of relict surfaces Characteristic cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in relict surfaces Conclusions © 2006 by Blackwell Science Ltd
- ItemComparative evaluation of surface complexation models for radionuclide uptake by diverse geologic materials(Elsevier, 2006-09) Payne, TE; Davis, JA; Ochs, M; Olin, M; Tweed, CJ; Altmann, S; Askarieh, MMThis chapter summaries a major international modelling exercise, co-ordinated by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, in which independent scientific teams applied thermodynamic sorption models (TSMs) to a number of experimental adsorption data sets. A wide variety of models was employed to simulate and predict the data. In all the test cases, reasonable, broadly similar TSM approaches were adopted, but based on wide diversity of assumptions and methods of parameter estimation. The models were able to realistically, and with some predictive power, simulate the experimental data for a range of substrates, radionuclides and chemical conditions. However, sorption modelling has not reached a stage approaching standardisation. Basic features such as the stoichiometry and structure of surface complexes and mathematical formulations for such model components as the EDL are subject to debate. In addition, key model input parameters such as site populations are not well defined (particularly for natural substrates). As a result, the numerical values of optimised model parameters are highly model- dependent, which means that, in the present study, it has not been meaningful to compare individual model parameters (such as log K values for surface complexes). If a consensus is reached on model components, and uniform modelling approaches are adopted, it will be appropriate to do such a comparison. Until that time, modellers need to recognise that model parameters can typically not be used directly in other models, but that they need to be scaled or re-fitted. Although the modelling strategies differed among the teams, all were guided by a single principle, representation of sorption in terms of mass action and mass balance laws. The generally satisfactory results of this intercomparison suggest that these types of models have inbuilt chemical plausibility and predictive capabililty. © 2006, Elsevier Ltd.
- ItemComputational fluid dynamics: a practical approach(Elsevier, 2007-10-26) Tu, JY; Yeoh, GH; Liu, CQComputational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), once the domain of academics, postdoctoral researchers or trained specialists, is now progressively becoming more accessible to graduate engineers for research and development as well as design-oriented tasks in industry. Mastery of CFD in handing complex flow and heat industrial problems is becoming ever more important. Competency in such a skill certainly brings about a steep learning curve for practicing engineers, who constantly face extreme challenges to come up with solutions to fluid flow and heat transfer problems without a priori knowledge of the basic concepts and fundamental understanding of fluid mechanics and heat transfer. © 2008 Elsevier
- ItemAustralian physical environment(Oxford University Press (OUP), 2008-07-11) Bridgman, H; Dragovich, D; Dodson, JRThe Australian Physical Environment uses a systems approach to introduce students to the three critical aspects of the physical environment: the atmosphere, the biosphere, and the lithosphere. International and national comparative examples are used to place Australia's unique environment within a global context. © 2008, Oxford University Press (OUP)
- ItemMapping the early inflammation process that leads to epilepsy in rodents(Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 2009-01-09) Callaghan, PD; Dedeurwaerdere, S; Grégoire, MC; Pham, TQ; Katsifis, AImaging of the living brain using Positron Emission Tomography (PET), a noninvasive, sensitive and quantitative imaging methodology, allows us to investigate neurobiological mechanisms involved in the onset of the neurological disease. Our work has focused on investigating the pre-symptomatic neuroinflammatory processes (called epileptogenesis) that lead development of chronic seizures, in an animal model of epilepsy. We have used our in-house radiotracer (18F-PBR111) which is highly specific for receptors expressed in the inflammatory response within the brain. Performing pre-clinical PET imaging with this radioligand allowed us to map and quantify neuroinflammation in vivo, and to correlate this with full in vitro assessment of the neuroinflammation response. The in vivo ligand binding patterns highly correlate with the structures involved in the generation of seizures, and these data reflect the in vitro data, illustrating that the PET binding represents true neuroinflammation. Thus, longitudinal PET studies will be possible in order to follow-up the evolution of the inflammatory regions during the onset of the disease, and test new preventive therapies that modulate this disease process.
- ItemExamining late holocene marine reservoir effect in archaeological fauna at Hope Inlet, Beagle Gulf, North Australia.(The Australian National University (ANU), 2009-02) Bourke, P; Hua, QThis study examines the marine reservoir effect during the Late Holocene evolution of a small estuary in the Beagle Gulf (12°S, 131°E). The paper aims at refining the local marine reservoir ages (R) and correction values (ΔR), by 14C analysis of stratigraphically associated archaeological fauna (marine shell, charcoal and fish otoliths) from five proximate middens of different chronologies. The results suggest that a marine reservoir age of 340 ± 70 yrs is applicable to the Beagle Gulf for the Late Holocene, which is not significantly different from that determined for nearby Van Dieman Gulf and the north Australian coast. © 2009, The Australian National University (ANU)
- ItemEcology of burrowing crabs in temperate saltmarsh of south-east Australia(CSIRO Publishing, 2009-02-01) Mazumder, DSaltmarshes are considered to be important coastal habitats because of their role in filtering surface water prior to its entering the sea, their contribution to coastal productivity (Morrisey 1995), and because they are a source of organic material and nutrients for a wide range of marine communities (Boorman 1999). One important visual feature of a saltmarsh is the presence of a large number of crab burrows, and this indicates an abundance of crabs within the saltmarsh environment. Crabs inhabiting saltmarshes excavate burrows over extensive areas, profoundly modiyfing the physical structure of the environment (Jones et al. 1994, 1997). The excavation activities of crabs and the resulting burrows may have important ecological significance on ecosystem functioning. Results from a mangrove habitat study found that burial of plant detritus by the excavation activities of sesarmid crabs, or litter directly pulled into their burrows, enhance the heterogeneity and thereby the efficiency of microbial decomposition in subsurface mangrove sediments (Kristensen 2008). Crabs living in the mangrove habitat are relatively well studied compared to those occupying the saltmarsh, and recognised for their role in contributing to the structure and function of mangrove habitats through burrowing and feeding activities (Warren and Underwood, 1986; Smith 1987). Mangrove crabs are also recognised for their role as food for higher-order predators (Robertson 1988) and their contribution to the foodweb through processing of leaf litter into more palatable forms, thereby contributing to nutrient cycling and energy flow (Lee 1995, 1997; Skov and Hartnoll 2002). By contrast very little is known about the ecology of crab species in temperate Australian saltmarsh, and in particular the degree to which saltmarsh crabs support the adjacent estuarine foodwebs. © 2009, CSIRO Publishing
- ItemMinerals, ceramics, and glasses.(CRC Press, 2009-06-24) Smart, RStC; Zhang, ZThe surfaces of minerals and ceramics have many features in common. This statement can be justi- ed by comparison of the nature of the information required from their respective surface analyses [1-3]. Indeed, tailored ceramics often result from judicious design involving combinations of mineral structures [4,5]. Similarities in phase structure and composition, surface structure and surface sites, microstructure, and surface reactivity have been demonstrated in numerous studies. Surface reactions involving oxidation, leaching, dissolution, weathering, precipitation, and phase transformation, are now well documented. Surface modi cation of minerals as a result of adsorption, reaction, processing (e.g., plasma spraying), and surface coatings (e.g., sol-gel deposition), has been found to be equally applicable to ceramic materials. Hence the methodologies for determining the surface properties that control the mechanisms of reaction and transformation of surfaces of minerals and ceramics will in general require similar surface analytical techniques. © 2020 Informa UK Limited
- ItemPreparation of inorganic polymer sorbents and their application in radionuclide generator technology(International Atomic Energy Agency, 2009-07-01) Le, VS; Nguyen, CD; Bui, VC; Vo, CHAbsorbents based on poly zirconium compound (PZC) and poly titanium compound (PTC) were synthesized for the preparation of 188W/188Re generators. The chemical composition, molecular structure and physicochemical characteristics of these adsorbents were investigated. The adsorption properties of PZC and PTC sorbents in different tungstate solutions and the elution performance were investigated. Tungsten adsorption capacities of about 520 mg of tungsten per gram of PZC and 515 mg of tungsten per gram of PTC and a 188Re elution yield greater than 80% for both PZC and PTC sorbents were achieved. A 188Re eluate concentration process was developed by eluting 188Re from the tandem system of 188W-PTC-alumina columns with two different concentrations of saline solution, which gave a concentration factor of about 6. The technology developed can be used for the preparation of clinically applicable 188W/188Re generators using low specfic radioactivity 188W produced in medium flux research reactors. Copyright 2009 © IAEA. All rights reserved
- ItemAlkali metal cation and proton conductors: relationships between composition, crystal structure, and properties(Wiley, 2009-07-15) Avdeev, M; Nalbandyan, VB; Shukaev, ILThis chapter contains sections titled: Principles of Classification, and General Comments; Crystal‐Chemistry Factors Affecting Cationic Conductivity; Crystal Structural Screening and Studies of Conduction Paths; Conductors with Large Alkali Ions; Lithium Ion Conductors; Proton Conductors; References. © 2009 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA
- Item10Be concentrations in snow at Law Dome, Antarctica following the 29 October 20 and 20 January 2005 solar cosmic ray events(World Scientific, 2009-08) Pedro, JB; Smith, AM; Duldig, ML; Klekociuk, AR; Simon, KJ; Curran, MAJ; van Ommen, TD; Fink, D; Morgan, VI; Galton-Fenzi, BKRecent model calculations have attempted to quantify the contribution of major energetic solar cosmic ray (SCR) events to 10Be production.1,2 In this study we compare modeled 10Be production by SCR events to measured 10Be concentrations in a Law Dome snow pit record. The snow pit record spans 2.7 years, providing a quasi-monthly 10Be sampling resolution which overlaps with the SCR events of 29 Oct 2003 and 20 Jan 2005. These events were calculated to increase monthly 10Be production in the polar atmosphere (>65° S geomagnetic latitude) by ~60% and ~120% above the GCR background, respectively2. A strong peak in 10Be concentrations (>4σ above the 2.7 y mean value) was observed ~1 month after the 20 Jan 2005 event. By contrast, no signal in 10Be concentrations was observed following the weaker 29 Oct 2003 series of events. The concentration of 10Be in ice core records involves interplay between production, transport, and deposition processes. We used a particle dispersion model to assess vertical and meridional transport of aerosols from the lower stratosphere where SCR production of 10Be is expected to occur, to the troposphere from where deposition to the ice sheet occurs. Model results suggested that a coherent SCR production signal could be transported to the troposphere within weeks to months following both SCR events. We argue that only the 20 Jan 2005 SCR event was observed in measured concentrations due to favorable atmospheric transport, relatively high production yield compared to the 29 Oct 2003 event, and a relatively high level of precipitation in the Law Dome region in the month following the event. This result encourages further examination of SCR signals in 10Be ice core data. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing
- ItemComputational techniques for multiphase flows(Elsevier, 2009-10-01) Yeoh, GH; Tu, JYMixed or multiphase flows of solid/liquid or solid/gas are commonly found in many industrial fields, and their behavior is complex and difficult to predict in many cases. The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has emerged as a powerful tool for the understanding of fluid mechanics in multiphase reactors, which are widely used in the chemical, petroleum, mining, food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries. This book enables scientists and engineers to the undertand the basis and application of CFD in muliphase flow, explains how to use the technique, when to use it and how to interpret the results and apply them to improving applications in process engineering and other multiphase application areas including the pumping, automotive and energy sectors. © 2009, Elsevier Ltd.