Browsing by Author "Turney, CSM"
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- ItemAnomalous tree-ring identification facilitated by AMS 14C analysis in subtropical and tropical Australian Araucariaceae samples enables development of a long-term, high-resolution climate reconstruction(Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 2021-11-17) Haines, HA; Palmer, JG; Hua, Q; English, NB; Hiscock, W; Turney, CSM; Marjo, CE; Gadd, PS; Kemp, J; Olley, JMIn Australia the majority of tropical and subtropical regions lack long-term instrumental climate records. Paleoclimate reconstructions from tree rings provide one alternative but very few dendrochronological investigations have so far been undertaken. Early assessments of mainland Australian tree species were discouraging due to the high prevalence of anomalous ring boundaries. Some species, however, were seen as more favourable than others including those in the Araucariaceae family which is common along the subtropical-tropical Australian east coast. These trees are longer lived than many other species in the region and contain growth rings known to be annual in nature and responsive to climatic conditions. There is however, a heavy prevalence of anomalous ring boundaries in species from this family which must be accounted for when dating these species. Here we describe the tree-ring characteristics and growth response from two stands of Hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii) trees located in subtropical and tropical Queensland, Australia (regions known for experiencing extreme hydroclimatic events). Confirmation of annual growth driven by moisture sensitivity was determined using radius dendrometers on four trees in Lamington National Park (c. 28º S). Tree cores were collected from both the Lamington stand as well as a stand at Hidden Valley near Paluma, Queensland (c. 19º S). Ring-width assessment showed the presence of false, faint, locally absent, and wedging rings in both sites. Results of bomb-pulse radiocarbon dating of selected single tree rings demonstrated that trees from this species can fall into one of three categories: A – those with locally-absent rings around the circumference of the trees, B – those where false rings were observed, and C – those with many wedging and locally-absent rings. Only trees in the first two categories were able to be included in the master chronologies. Traditional dendrochronological analysis with age validation by bomb-pulse radiocarbon dating allowed for a robust ring-width chronology from 1805-2014 CE to be developed for the Lamington National Park site. Growth-climate analysis of the master tree-ring chronology determined that the strongest environmental correlation was to wet season drought conditions. The strength of this response was compared to local and regional drought indices as well as to a long-term drought reconstruction. The combined analysis led to the development of a 200-year drought reconstruction for the region which shows influences from both the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation. © The Authors
- ItemThe application of pollen radiocarbon dating and bayesian age-depth modeling for developing robust geochronological frameworks of wetland archives(Cambridge University Press for the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona, 2022-04-27) Cadd, H; Sherborne-Higgins, B; Becerra-Valdivia, L; Tibby, J; Barr, C; Forbes, MS; Cohen, TJ; Tyler, JJ; Vandergoes, MJ; Francke, A; Lewis, RJ; Jacobsen, GE; Marjo, CE; Turney, CSM; Arnold, LJWetland sediments are valuable archives of environmental change but can be challenging to date. Terrestrial macrofossils are often sparse, resulting in radiocarbon (14C) dating of less desirable organic fractions. An alternative approach for capturing changes in atmospheric 14C is the use of terrestrial microfossils. We 14C date pollen microfossils from two Australian wetland sediment sequences and compare these to ages from other sediment fractions (n = 56). For the Holocene Lake Werri Berri record, pollen 14C ages are consistent with 14C ages on bulk sediment and humic acids (n = 14), whilst Stable Polycyclic Aromatic Carbon (SPAC) 14C ages (n = 4) are significantly younger. For Welsby Lagoon, pollen concentrate 14C ages (n = 21) provide a stratigraphically coherent sequence back to 50 ka BP. 14C ages from humic acid and >100 µm fractions (n = 13) are inconsistent, and often substantially younger than pollen ages. Our comparison of Bayesian age-depth models, developed in Oxcal, Bacon and Undatable, highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the different programs for straightforward and more complex chrono-stratigraphic records. All models display broad similarities but differences in modeled age-uncertainty, particularly when age constraints are sparse. Intensive dating of wetland sequences improves the identification of outliers and generation of robust age models, regardless of program used. © The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press for the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona
- ItemChanges in El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) conditions during the Greenland Stadial 1 (GS-1) chronozone revealed by New Zealand tree-rings(Elsevier, 2016-12-01) Palmer, JG; Turney, CSM; Cook, ER; Fenwick, P; Thomas, ZA; Helle, G; Jones, RT; Clement, A; Hogg, AG; Southon, J; Bronk Ramsey, C; Staff, R; Muscheler, R; Corrège, T; Hua, QThe warming trend at the end of the last glacial was disrupted by rapid cooling clearly identified in Greenland (Greenland Stadial 1 or GS-1) and Europe (Younger Dryas Stadial or YD). This reversal to glacial-like conditions is one of the best known examples of abrupt change but the exact timing and global spatial extent remain uncertain. Whilst the wider Atlantic region has a network of high-resolution proxy records spanning GS-1, the Pacific Ocean suffers from a scarcity of sub-decadally resolved sequences. Here we report the results from an investigation into a tree-ring chronology from northern New Zealand aimed at addressing the paucity of data. The conifer tree species kauri (Agathis australis) is known from contemporary studies to be sensitive to regional climate changes. An analysis of a ‘historic’ 452-year kauri chronology confirms a tropical-Pacific teleconnection via the El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We then focus our study on a 1010-year sub-fossil kauri chronology that has been precisely dated by comprehensive radiocarbon dating and contains a striking ring-width downturn between ∼12,500 and 12,380 cal BP within GS-1. Wavelet analysis shows a marked increase in ENSO-like periodicities occurring after the downturn event. Comparison to low- and mid-latitude Pacific records suggests a coherency with ENSO and Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation change during this period. The driver(s) for this climate event remain unclear but may be related to solar changes that subsequently led to establishment and/or increased expression of ENSO across the mid-latitudes of the Pacific, seemingly independent of the Atlantic and polar regions. © 2016, Elsevier Ltd.
- ItemDeveloping an event stratigraphy for Australasian climate change(American Geophysical Union, 2011-06-03) Shulmeister, J; Turney, CSM; Fink, D; Newnham, RM; Alloway, BVThe last glacial-interglacial transition in the Australasian region has been a focus of intense paleoclimate investigation for the past decade or so. This focus is due to the recognition of the southern midlatitudes as a key region to examine climate connections between the hemispheres during the late Pleistocene. That period, between 30,000 and 8000 years ago, was marked by extreme and rapid climatic change in the North Atlantic region. In particular, the Australasian region may be critical to examining the relative importance of atmospheric energy transfers versus deep ocean circulation effects. In February 2006, 32 members of the Australasian Integration of Ice, Marine and Terrestrial records (INTIMATE) program attended a two-day workshop at the University of Auckland, in New Zealand. ©2006. American Geophysical Union.
- ItemEvidence for extreme floods in arid subtropical northwest Australia during the Little Ice Age chronozone (CE 1400-1850).(Elsevier, 2016-07-15) Rouillard, A; Skrzypek, G; Turney, CSM; Dorgramaci, S; Hua, Q; Zawadzki, A; Reeves, JM; Greenwood, P; O’Donnell, AJ; Grierson, PFHere we report a ∼2000-year sediment sequence from the Fortescue Marsh (Martuyitha) in the eastern Pilbara region, which we have used to investigate changing hydroclimatic conditions in the arid subtropics of northwest Australia. The Pilbara is located at the intersection of the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans and its modern rainfall regime is strongly influenced by tropical cyclones, the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool. We identified four distinct periods within the record. The most recent period (P1: CE ∼1990–present) reveals hydroclimatic conditions over recent decades that are the most persistently wet of potentially the last ∼2000 years. During the previous centuries (P2: ∼CE 1600–1990), the Fortescue Marsh was overall drier but likely punctuated by a number of extreme floods, which are defined here as extraordinary, strongly episodic floods in drylands generated by rainfall events of high volume and intensity. The occurrence of extreme floods during this period, which encompasses the Little Ice Age (LIA; CE 1400–1850), is coherent with other southern tropical datasets along the ITCZ over the last 2000 years, suggesting synchronous hydroclimatic changes across the region. This extreme flood period was preceded by several hundred years (P3: ∼CE 700–1600) of less vigorous but more regular flows. The earliest period of the sediment record (P4: ∼CE 100–700) was the most arid, with sedimentary and preservation processes driven by prolonged drought. Our results highlight the importance of developing paleoclimate records from the tropical and sub-tropical arid zone, providing a long-term baseline of hydrological conditions in areas with limited historical observations. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
- ItemIntegration of ice-core, marine and terrestrial records for the Australian Last Glacial Maximum and Termination: a contribution from the OZ INTIMATE group(Wiley, 2006-10) Turney, CSM; Haberle, SG; Fink, D; Kershaw, AP; Barbetti, M; Barrows, TT; Black, M; Cohen, TJ; Corrège, T; Hesse, PP; Hua, Q; Johnston, R; Morgan, VI; Moss, PT; Nanson, GC; van Ommen, TD; Rule, S; Williams, NJ; Zhao, JX; D'Costa, D; Feng, YX; Gagan, MK; Mooney, SD; Xia, QThe degree to which Southern Hemisphere climatic changes during the end of the last glacial period and early Holocene (30-8 ka) were influenced or initiated by events occurring in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere is a complex issue. There is conflicting evidence for the degree of hemispheric ‘teleconnection’ and an unresolved debate as to the principle forcing mechanism(s). The available hypotheses are difficult to test robustly, however, because the few detailed palaeoclimatic records in the Southern Hemisphere are widely dispersed and lack duplication. Here we present climatic and environmental reconstructions from across Australia, a key region of the Southern Hemisphere because of the range of environments it covers and the potentially important role regional atmospheric and oceanic controls play in global climate change. We identify a general scheme of events for the end of the last glacial period and early Holocene but a detailed reconstruction proved problematic. Significant progress in climate quantification and geochronological control is now urgently required to robustly investigate change through this period. © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- ItemThe new Chronos 14carbon-Cycle Facility, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.(Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 2021-11-17) Turney, CSM; Thomas, Z; Becerra-Valdivia, L; Palmer, JG; Haines, HA; Cadd, H; Wacker, L; Baker, AA; Andersen, MS; Jacobsen, GE; Meredith, KT; Chinu, K; Hiscock, W; Vohra, J; Marjo, CEThe Chronos 14Carbon-Cycle Facility is a new radiocarbon laboratory at the University of New South Wales, Australia. Built around an Ionplus 200 kV MIni-CArbon DAting System (MICADAS) Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) installed in October 2019, the facility was established to address major challenges in the Earth, Environmental and Archaeological sciences. Here we report an overview of the Chronos facility, the pretreatment methods currently employed (bones, carbonates, peat, pollen, charcoal, and wood) and results of radiocarbon and stable isotope measurements undertaken on a wide range of sample types. Our measurements on international standards, known-age and blank samples demonstrate that the facility is capable of measuring 14C samples from the Anthropocene back to nearly 50,000 years ago. Future work will focus on improving our understanding of the Earth system and managing resources in a future warmer world.
- ItemRadiocarbon protocols and first intercomparison results from the Chronos 14Carbon-Cycle Facility, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia(Cambridge University Press, 2021-05-11) Turney, CSM; Becerra-Valdivia, L; Sookdeo, A; Thomas, ZA; Palmer, JG; Haines, HA; Cadd, H; Wacker, L; Baker, AA; Andersen, MS; Jacobsen, GE; Meredith, KT; Chinu, K; Bollhalder, S; Marjo, CEThe Chronos 14Carbon-Cycle Facility is a new radiocarbon laboratory at the University of New South Wales, Australia. Built around an Ionplus 200 kV MIni-CArbon DAting System (MICADAS) Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) installed in October 2019, the facility was established to address major challenges in the Earth, Environmental and Archaeological sciences. Here we report an overview of the Chronos facility, the pretreatment methods currently employed (bones, carbonates, peat, pollen, charcoal, and wood) and results of radiocarbon and stable isotope measurements undertaken on a wide range of sample types. Measurements on international standards, known-age and blank samples demonstrate the facility is capable of measuring 14C samples from the Anthropocene back to nearly 50,000 years ago. Future work will focus on improving our understanding of the Earth system and managing resources in a future warmer world. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press for the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.
- ItemReconstructing late pleistocene atmospheric radiocarbon using subfossil New Zealand Kauri (Agathis australis)(Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 2021-11-17) O'Brien, PP; Turney, CSM; Palmer, JG; Fenwick, P; Hogg, AG; Lorrey, AM; Hua, QSubfossil New Zealand kauri (Agathis australis) buried in bogs across Northland, New Zealand, provide considerable potential for a continuous high-precision radiocarbon calibration curve that extends across the full range of radiocarbon dating. Kauri currently is a significant contributor to our understanding of calibration in this Southern region. The preserved samples also offer a unique opportunity to reconstruct climate events on multi-millennial timescales with annual resolution and carbon concentration. Here we investigate a key site called Waipu, where 40 subfossil trees have been crossdated to form 5 floating chronologies. These series cover collectively 6000 years and preliminary radiocarbon dating suggests a range of ages from 22,000 to 49,000 years BP. Further radiocarbon dating and crossdating of other kauri tree-ring series using the new RingdateR package and visual inspection has identified other trees that may cross-date. This suggests it may be possible to link the floating Waipu series, forming a continuous chronology.If successful this would form the one of the longest subfossil kauri chronologies, with the help of radiocarbon dating. The Waipu chronology would form a world-class palaeo-archive for the Southern Hemisphere and provide a valuable contribution to future iterations of the international calibration curves. © The Authors
- ItemSHCal13 Southern Hemisphere calibration, 0–50,000 years cal BP(University Arizona Department Geosciences, 2016-02-09) Hogg, AG; Hua, Q; Blackwell, PG; Niu, M; Buck, CE; Guilderson, TP; Heaton, TJ; Palmer, JG; Reimer, PJ; Reimer, RW; Turney, CSM; Zimmerman, SRHThe Southern Hemisphere SHCal04 radiocarbon calibration curve has been updated with the addition of new data sets extending measurements to 2145 cal BP and including the ANSTO Younger Dryas Huon pine data set. Outside the range of measured data, the curve is based upon the ern Hemisphere data sets as presented in IntCal13, with an interhemispheric offset averaging 43 ± 23 yr modeled by an autoregressive process to represent the short-term correlations in the offset. © 2013, by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.
- ItemSHCal20 Southern Hemisphere calibration, 0–55,000 years cal BP(Cambridge University Press, 2020-08-12) Hogg, AG; Heaton, TJ; Hua, Q; Palmer, JG; Turney, CSM; Southon, J; Bayliss, A; Blackwell, PG; Boswijk, G; Bronk Ramsey, C; Pearson, C; Petchey, F; Reimer, P; Wacker, LEarly researchers of radiocarbon levels in Southern Hemisphere tree rings identified a variable North-South hemispheric offset, necessitating construction of a separate radiocarbon calibration curve for the South. We present here SHCal20, a revised calibration curve from 0–55,000 cal BP, based upon SHCal13 and fortified by the addition of 14 new tree-ring data sets in the 2140–0, 3520–3453, 3608–3590 and 13,140–11,375 cal BP time intervals. We detail the statistical approaches used for curve construction and present recommendations for the use of the Northern Hemisphere curve (IntCal20), the Southern Hemisphere curve (SHCal20) and suggest where application of an equal mixture of the curves might be more appropriate. Using our Bayesian spline with errors-in-variables methodology, and based upon a comparison of Southern Hemisphere tree-ring data compared with contemporaneous Northern Hemisphere data, we estimate the mean Southern Hemisphere offset to be 36 ± 27 14C yrs older. © 2020 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.