Browsing by Author "Siegele, R"
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- Item2nd generation microdosimeter with guard ring: an IBC study(Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE), 2009-11-25) Ziebell, AL; Hu, N; Lai, NS; Lim, WH; Reinhard, MI; Prokopovich, DA; Siegele, R; Dzurak, AS; Rosenfeld, ABSilicon-on-insulator (SOI) micro dosimeters have recently been used to successfully measure the radiobiological properties of mixed radiation fields typical of medical, space and radiation protection environments. These SOI devices consist of a 2D array of elongated parallelepiped diode structures. Charge collection studies have revealed that due to the electric field distribution within the planar SV, there are significant lateral charge diffusion effects which complicate charge collection and give rise to a less than ideal chord length variance. © 2009 AINSE
- ItemANSTO heavy ion ToF for analysis of light elements in thin films(Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE), 2007-11) Ionescu, M; Zhao, Y; Siegele, R; Cohen, DD; Lynch, D; Garton, D; Stelcer, E; Prior, MJThin films have various potential applications in electronic devices, and their performance is intricately linked with the electric and magnetic properties of the film, in which an important role is played by the presence of light elements, in particular Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen. The source of light elements, the form in which they are incorporated into the thin film, and how this is influencing the MgB2 thin film properties is currently under scrutiny by various research groups. Typically these films are grown on oxide ceramic substrates, such as Al2O3-C and it is possible that the source of Oxygen is the substrate itself or the growth atmosphere. Here we report on a study of light elements in MgB2 thin films grown on various substrates, using heavy ions recoil and a time-of-flight detector. A series of MgB2 thin film samples produced by PLD (pulsed laser deposition) were analyzed, including films produced in-situ on Al2O3-C substrates with an on-axis and off-axis geometry, one film produced in-situ with an off-axis geometry, and one film produced ex-situ, with a bulk-like Tc. We also analyzed one film produced with on-axis geometry under the same conditions on Si (001) substrate. The amount of Oxygen detected by ToF, appears to be correlated with the Tc of the films, the higher the Tc the lower the oxygen content. Also, the superconducting properties of the examined thin films are discussed in the context of the results.
- ItemArsenic hyperaccumulation and localization in the pinnule and stipe tissues of the gold-dust fern (Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link var. austroamericana (Domin) Farw.) using quantitative micro-PIXE spectroscopy(Springer, 2007-11) Kachenko, AG; Bhatia, NP; Singh, B; Siegele, RSpatial distribution patterns of arsenic (As) in the tissues of a lesser-known As hyperaccumulating fern Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link var. austroamericana (Domin) Farw. (Pteridaceae) have been studied. Quantitative micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) spectroscopy was employed to examine As localization in pinnule and stipe cross-sections of this species. In addition, As hyperaccumulation status of P. calomelanos var. austroamericana was compared with the well-known As hyperaccumulating fern Pteris vittata L. Both species were grown in pots under controlled conditions and exposed to four levels of As (0-500 mg As kg(-1)) for 20 weeks. Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana accumulated up to 16 415 mg As kg(-1) dry weight (DW), however, phytotoxicity symptoms such as necrotic pinnule tips and margins, appeared in fronds with concentrations > 3,008 mg As kg(-1) DW. Arsenic was readilytranslocated to fronds, with concentrations up to 75 times greater in fronds than in roots. Quantitative elemental maps of As generated using micro-PIXE analysis revealed that As concentrations in pinnule cross-sections were higher than in stipe cross-sections with concentrations of 3.7 x 10(3) and 1.6 x 10(3) mg As kg(-1) DW, respectively (as determined by region selection analysis; RSA). In pinnules, RSA revealed variable concentrations of As, however did not resolve a clear pattern of compartmentalization across different anatomical regions. In stipe tissues, As concentrations followed the order vascular bundle > cortex > epidermis (as determined by RSA). Our results show that P. calomelanos var. austroamericana is an As hyperaccumulator and has the potential for use in phytoremediation of soils with low levels (up to 50 mg kg(-1)) of As contamination. © 2007, Springer.
- ItemBiogenic Pt uptake and nanoparticle formation in Medicago sativa and Brassica juncea(Springer, 2010-10) Bali, R; Siegele, R; Harris, ATThe ability of the facultative metallophyte plants, Medicago sativa (M. sativa) and Brassica juncea (B. juncea) to accumulate and translocate platinum (Pt) from aqueous substrates is reported. The influence of Pt concentration in the substrate (5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm), exposure time (24, 48 and 72 h) and substrate pH (2, 3, 5, 7 and 9) was determined. In both plants the concentration of Pt increased with substrate concentration and exposure time. Greater accumulation was detected in the roots of M. sativa than B. juncea, up to a maximum of 94.19 mg Pt g−1 (dry biomass) compared with 38.5 mg Pt g−1 (dry biomass) following exposure to 80 ppm Pt after 72 h exposure, respectively. However, at lower substrate concentrations (5 and 20 ppm) greater quantities of Pt were detected in the shoots of B. juncea, ranging between 0.02 and 0.32 mg Pt g−1 (dry biomass) at 5 ppm across the different time intervals studied, compared with 0.02−0.14 mg Pt g−1 (dry biomass) for M. sativa, suggesting B. juncea to be a better translocator of Pt under idealised conditions at low concentrations. Higher Pt uptake was also observed in acidic media, with a maximum at pH 2 for M. sativa and pH 3 for B. juncea, indicating the role of net surface charge on the bioaccumulation of Pt. Once sequestered Pt(II) was reduced to Pt(0) due to the action of local metabolites. TEM images of M. sativa root samples showed the in vivo formation of Pt nanoparticles between 3 and 100 nm in size and of varying morphologies in the epidermal root cells. In vivo Pt distribution profiles were assessed using proton induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) spectroscopy, which showed even distribution across all tissue systems (epidermal, cortical and vascular) within the roots of both M. sativa and B. juncea. © 2010, Springer. The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com
- ItemBiogenic separation, accumulation and cellular distribution of Cu, Co, and Ni in medicago sativa under idealized conditions(Taylor & Francis, 2010-06) Bali, R; Siegele, R; Harris, ATThe limits of uptake of Co, Ni, and Cu by the common metallophyte, Medicago sativa, were assessed using hydroponic growth and metal uptake experiments. The influence of the growth substrate metal concentration (500 and 1000 ppm) and exposure time, i.e., the time plants were exposed to the metal solution (24, 48, or 72 h) was investigated. The combined roots and shoots of Medicago sativa accumulated up to 2.2 wt-% Co, 2.0 wt-% Ni, and 3.5 wt-% Cu, when exposed to aqueous solutions containing 1000 ppm Co for 48 h, 1000 ppm Ni for 72 h, and 1000 ppm Cu for 72 h, respectively. The distribution of the sequestered metals was assessed using proton induced that X-ray emission spectroscopy (μ-PIXE), which indicated that translocation mechanism was most likely xylem loading. However, the rate of translocation of the metal from the roots to the plant stem was different for each metal, suggesting differing mechanisms for each. Collectively, these results suggest the separation and removal of the heavy metals Cu, Co, and Ni from contaminated substrates using Medicago sativa is a viable technology. © 2010, Taylor & Francis Ltd.
- ItemA bright future for accelerator science at ANSTO(Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE), 2009-11-25) Hotchkis, MAC; Child, DP; Cohen, DD; Dodson, JR; Fink, D; Garton, D; Hua, Q; Ionescu, M; Jacobsen, GE; Levchenko, VA; Mifsud, C; Siegele, R; Smith, AM; Williams, AG; Winkler, SIn the May 2009 budget, the Federal Government announced funding of $25m to ANSTO through the Education Investment Fund, to build state-of-the-art applied accelerator science facilities, by upgrading and replacing existing facilities and laboratories at ANSTO. Currently, ANSTO's researchers, jointly with researchers from all 37 Australian universities, plus other agencies such as CSIRO, government departments and local government bodies, and overseas collaborators and customers, use ANSTO's accelerator facilities for analysis of a wide range of materials, predominantly by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA). There are >100 external users of those facilities every year. © 2009 AINSE
- ItemThe Centre for Accelerator Science at ANSTO(International Atomic Energy Agency, 2014-01-14) Hotchkis, MAC; Child, DP; Cohen, DD; Dodson, JR; Fink, D; Fujioka, T; Garton, D; Hua, Q; Ionescu, M; Jacobsen, GE; Levchenko, VA; Mifsud, C; Pastuovic, Z; Siegele, R; Smith, AM; Wilcken, KM; Williams, AGIn 2009, the Federal government provided funding of $25m to ANSTO through the Education Investment Fund, to build state-of-the-art applied accelerator science facilities, with the primary aim of providing world-leading accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and ion beam analysis (IBA) facilities. New buildings are now under construction and Building plans are now well advanced, and two new accelerators are on order with National Electrostatics Corporation, USA. The 1MV AMS accelerator system is designed with the capability to perform high efficiency, high precision AMS analysis across the full mass range. Large beam-optical acceptance will ensure high quality and high throughput radiocarbon measurements. High mass resolution analyzers, at low and high energy, coupled to a novel fast isotope switching system, will enable high quality analysis of actinide radioisotopes. The 6MV tandem accelerator will be instrumented with a wide range of AMS, IBA and ion irradiation facilities. The three ion sources include hydrogen and helium sources, and a MCSNICS sputter source for solid materials. The AMS facility has end stations for (i) a gasabsorber detector for 10Be analysis, (ii) a time-of-flight detector, (iii) a gas-filled magnet and(iv) a general use ionization detector suited to 36Cl and other analyses. Initially, there will be four IBA beamlines, including a new ion beam microprobe currently on order with Oxford Microbeams. The other beamlines will include an on-line ion implanter, nuclear reaction analysis and elastic recoil detection analysis facilities. The beam hall layout allows for future expansion, including the possibility of porting the beam to the existing ANTARES beam hall for simultaneous irradiation experiments.Two buildings are currently under construction, one for the new accelerators and the other for new chemistry laboratories for AMS and mass spectrometry facilities. The AMS chemistry labs are planned in two stages, with the new radiocarbon labs to come in the second phase of work.
- ItemCharacterisation of a ΔE–E particle telescope using the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe(Elsevier, 2007-07) Siegele, R; Reinhard, MI; Prokopovich, DA; Ionescu, M; Cohen, DD; Rosenfeld, AB; Cornelius, IM; Wroe, A; Lerch, MLF; Fazzi, A; Pola, A; Agosteo, SSemiconductor planar processing technology has spurned the development of novel radiation detectors with applications in space, high energy physics, medical diagnostics, radiation protection and cancer therapy. The ANSTO heavy ion microprobe, which allows a wide range of ions to be focused into spot sizes of a few micrometers in diameter, has proven to be an essential tool for characterising these detectors using the Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) imaging technique. The use of different ions and the wide range of available energies on the heavy ion microprobe, allows the testing of these devices with ionising particles associated with different values of linear energy transfer (LET). Quadruple coincidence measurements have been used to map the charge collection characteristics of a monolithic ΔE-E telescope, This was done through simultaneous measurement of the spatial coordinates of the microbeam relative to the sample and the response of both detector elements. The resulting charge collection maps were used to better understand the functionality of the device as well as to ascertain ways in which future device designs could be modified to improve performance. © 2007, Elsevier Ltd.
- ItemCharacterization of ion tracks in PMMA for single ion lithography(Elsevier, 2007-07) Alves, A; Johnston, PN; Reichart, P; Jamieson, DN; Siegele, RThe ultimate resolution in ion beam lithography (IBL) can be achieved by etching tracks modified by the passage of a single ion impact which has a diameter in the order of 10 nm. For precise counting of single ions, a Si photodiode is used as a substrate onto which a PMMA film is spun. We have macroscopically investigated the sensitivity of PMMA using 3 MeV H end found that a deposited energy density of greater than 1 eV/nm(3) is required to remove the PMMA film for 60 s developing in a water:IPA 1:4 solution. From this sensitivity measurement we have determined that 8 MeV F, 71 MeV Cu and 88 MeV I ions should produce enough damage in a single ion strike to create a hole etched along the latent damage track. We have used AFM imaging to quantitatively characterise the hole diameter as a function of the incident ion and the developing time. It was found that for up to 8 min development in a water:IPA solution holes were created for the F, Cu and I ions. SEM imaging has also been used to verify the holes seen by AFM imaging. © 2007, Elsevier Ltd.
- ItemCharacterization of single ion tracks in PMMA created by light and heavy ion microprobes(Australian Institute of Physics, 2006-12-05) Alves, A; Reichart, P; Siegele, R; Johnston, PN; Jamieson, DNThe ultimate resolution in ion beam lithography can be achieved by etching the material modified by a single ion impact which has a diameter in the order of only 10 nm. The sensitivity of the resist needs to be as high as possible but also keeping the bulk etch rate at a minimum. Our study is focused on poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) with a small bulk etch rate compared to other track detectors (e.g. CR-39). We investigated the sensitivity using 3 MeV H, 8 MeV F, 71 MeV Cu and 88 MeV I generated by ion microprobes. Precise ion counting into a spin coated PMMA film on top of an active substrate enables us to control the exact dose and fluence delivered to the PMMA from a homogenous dose down to separated single ion tracks. With homogenous irradiation, the sensitivity limit was found to be 1-2 eV/nm^3, hence the damage radius and LET determines the etchability of a single ion track. Analysis of the track radii was performed using non-contact AFM. A high aspect ratio Si nanowhisker tip was used to image the openings to the etched tracks. It was found that for up to 8 min development in a water:IPA solution holes were created for the F, Cu and I ions. The undamaged bulk PMMA is also etched at a significantly lower rate than the ion tracks and contributed to a roughening of the PMMA surface. At 16 min developing time the PMMA film was completely removed. This was attributed to a mechanical failure in the film and not gradual film etching. Hole diameter and depth has been quantitatively analysed in an effort to determine the relationship between the LET of the incident ion, the development time and the resulting hole diameter.
- ItemCharge collection efficiency degradation induced by MeV ions in semiconductor devices: model and experiment(Elsvier, 2016-01-01) Vittone, E; Pastuovic, Z; Breese, M; Garcia Lopez, J; Jakšić, M; Raisanen, J; Siegele, R; Simon, A; Vizkelethy, GThis paper investigates both theoretically and experimentally the charge collection efficiency (CCE) degradation in silicon diodes induced by energetic ions. Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) measurements carried out on n- and p-type silicon diodes which were previously irradiated with MeV He ions show evidence that the CCE degradation does not only depend on the mass, energy and fluence of the damaging ion, but also depends on the ion probe species and on the polarization state of the device. A general one-dimensional model is derived, which accounts for the ion-induced defect distribution, the ionization profile of the probing ion and the charge induction mechanism. Using the ionizing and non-ionizing energy loss profiles resulting from simulations based on the binary collision approximation and on the electrostatic/transport parameters of the diode under study as input, the model is able to accurately reproduce the experimental CCE degradation curves without introducing any phenomenological additional term or formula. Although limited to low level of damage, the model is quite general, including the displacement damage approach as a special case and can be applied to any semiconductor device. It provides a method to measure the capture coefficients of the radiation induced recombination centres. They can be considered indexes, which can contribute to assessing the relative radiation hardness of semiconductor materials. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
- ItemChemical alterations to murine brain tissue induced by formation fixation: implications for biospectroscopic imaging and mapping studies of disease pathogenesis(Royal Society of Chemistry, 2011-07-21) Hackett, MJ; McQuillan, JA; El-Assaad, F; Aitken, JB; Levina, A; Cohen, DD; Siegele, R; Carter, EA; Grau, GE; Hunt, NH; Lay, PAUnderstanding biochemical mechanisms and changes associated with disease conditions and, therefore, development of improved clinical treatments, is relying increasingly on various biochemical mapping and imaging techniques on tissue sections. However, it is essential to be able to ascertain whether the sampling used provides the full biochemical information relevant to the disease and is free from artefacts. A multi-modal micro-spectroscopic approach, including FTIR imaging and PIXE elemental mapping, has been used to study the molecular and elemental profile within cryofixed and formalin-fixed murine brain tissue sections. The results provide strong evidence that amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, phosphates, proteins and ions, such as Cl(-) and K(+), leach from tissue sections into the aqueous fixative medium during formalin fixation of the sections. Large changes in the concentrations and distributions of most of these components are also observed by washing in PBS even for short periods. The most likely source of the chemical species lost during fixation is the extra-cellular and intra-cellular fluid of tissues. The results highlight that, at best, analysis of formalin-fixed tissues gives only part of the complete biochemical "picture'' of a tissue sample. Further, this investigation has highlighted that significant lipid peroxidation/oxidation may occur during formalin fixation and that the use of standard histological fixation reagents can result in significant and differential metal contamination of different regions of tissue sections. While a consistent and reproducible fixation method may be suitable for diagnostic purposes, the findings of this study strongly question the use of formalin fixation prior to spectroscopic studies of the molecular and elemental composition of biological samples, if the primary purpose is mechanistic studies of disease pathogenesis.© 2011, Royal Society of Chemistry
- ItemComparison of in vivo binding properties of the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) ligands [18F]PBR102 and [18F]PBR111 in a model of excitotoxin-induced neuroinflammation(Springer Link, 2015-01) Callaghan, PD; Wimberley, CA; Rahardjo, GL; Berghofer, PJ; Pham, TQ; Jackson, TW; Zahra, D; Bourdier, T; Wyatt, N; Greguric, I; Howell, NR; Siegele, R; Pastuovic, Z; Mattner, F; Loc'h, C; Grégoire, MC; Katsifis, AThe in vivo binding parameters of the novel imidazopyridine TSPO ligand [18F]PBR102 were assessed and compared with those of [18F]PBR111 in a rodent model of neuroinflammation. The validity of the key assumptions of the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) for estimation of binding potential (BP) was determined, with validation against a two-tissue compartment model (2TC). Methods Acute neuroinflammation was assessed 7 days after unilateral stereotaxic administration of (R,S)-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolopropionique (AMPA) in anaesthetized adult Wistar rats. Anaesthetized rats were implanted with a femoral arterial cannula then injected with a low mass of [18F]PBR102 or [18F]PBR111 and dynamic images were acquired over 60 min using an INVEON PET/CT camera. Another population of rats underwent the same PET protocol after pretreatment with a presaturating mass of the same unlabelled tracer (1 mg/kg) to assess the validity of the reference region for SRTM analysis. Arterial blood was sampled during imaging, allowing pharmacokinetic determination of radiotracer concentrations. Plasma activity concentration–time curves were corrected for unchanged tracer based on metabolic characterization experiments in a separate cohort of Wistar rats. The stability of neuroinflammation in both imaging cohorts was assessed by [125I] CLINDE TSPO quantitative autoradiography, OX42/GFAP immunohistochemistry, Fluoro-Jade C histology, and elemental mapping using microparticle-induced x-ray emission spectroscopy. The BP of each ligand were assessed in the two cohorts of lesioned animals using both SRTM and a 2TC with arterial parent compound concentration, coupled with the results from the presaturation cohort for comparison and validation of the SRTM. Results The BPs of [18F]PBR102 [18F]PBR111 were equivalent, with improved signal-to-noise ratio and sensitivity compared with [11C]PK11195. The presaturation study showed differences in the volume of distribution between the ipsilateral striatum and the striatum contralateral to the injury (0.7) indicating that an assumption of the SRTM was not met. The modelling indicated that the BPs were consistent for both ligands. Between the SRTM and 2TC model, the BPs were highly correlated, but there was a bias in BP. Conclusion [18F]PBR102 and [18F]PBR111 have equivalent binding properties in vivo, displaying significantly greater BPs with lower signal-to-noise ratio than [11C]PK11195. While an assumption of the SRTM was not met, this modelling approach was validated against 2TC modelling for both ligands, facilitating future use in longitudinal PET imaging of neuroinflammation.© 2014, Springer Nature
- ItemCylindrical silicon-on-insulator microdosimeter: charge collection characteristics.(Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE), 2007-11-22) Ziebell, AL; Lim, WH; Reinhard, MI; Cornelius, IM; Prokopovich, DA; Siegele, R; Dzurak, AS; Rosenfeld, ABAt present there exists a need, in both medical physics and radiation protection, for a portable microdosimeter that can be used in determining the radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) of different mixed radiation fields.
- ItemDescription of ANSTO’s confocal microprobe simulation program(Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 2011-02-01) Cohen, DD; Crawford, J; Siegele, RThe elemental composition of a sample can be determined by the analysis of its characteristic X-ray spectrum. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been used for a number of decades for this purpose (e.g. Clayton et al. 1981). More recently techniques aimed at enhancing the spatial resolution in the samples have been investigated. One of these techniques is to restrict the field of view of the X-ray detector by the use of a polycapillary lens. In such a confocal set-up the sample is driven across the sensitive volume formed at the intersection of the proton beam and the area from which the lens collects radiation (Zitnik at al. 2009, Wolff et al. 2009). Here we detail early investigations of a set-up with a polycapilary lens attached to the detector and a FORTRAN program which calculates the yield from a homogeneous material. Once the working of the set-up and program have been investigated and validated for homogeneous sample, heterogeneous samples can be considered.
- ItemDeveloping electronic devices capable of withstanding harsh radiation(2013-05-13) Pastuovic, Z; Vittone, E; Siegele, R; Capan, I; Vizkelethy, G; Cohen, DD; Jakšić, MStudies performed by Zeljko Pastuovic at ANSTO’s microprobe facility, in collaboration with a team of international researchers, are helping to understand, model and predict the detrimental influence of ionising radiation on semiconducting materials required in millions of electronic devices. The research aims to develop materials and devices that are able to better withstand the damaging effects of high energy particles present in harsh radiation environments, such as solar cells, and power satellites in space, as well as materials used in high-energy physics and accelerators. These studies will help semiconductor, aerospace and other industries to better understand and extend the life of electronic devices.
- ItemDevelopment of a large-area silicon α-particle detector(Elsevier, 2014-09) Tran, LT; Prokopovich, DA; Lerch, MLF; Petasecca, M; Siegele, R; Reinhard, MI; Perevertaylo, VL; Rosenfeld, ABCircular ion-implanted silicon detector of α-particles with a large, 5-cm2, sensitive area has been developed. An advantage of the detector is that the detector surface is easily cleanable with chemicals. The hardened surface of the detector shows no signs of deterioration of the spectroscopic and electrical characteristics upon repeated cleaning. The energy resolution along the diameters of the detector was (1.0±0.1)% for the 5.486-MeV α-particles. Detailed tests of the charge collection efficiency and uniformity of the detector entrance window were also performed with a 5.5-MeV He2+ microbeam. © 2014, Elsevier Ltd.
- ItemDevelopment of accelerator based micro IBA techniques for the study of environmental samples and material characterisation(Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 2010-05-17) Cohen, DD; Siegele, R; Stelcer, E; Ionescu, M; Garton, DThe Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) is a research establishment of around 950 people located approximately 30 km south west of Sydney, Australia. ANSTO has several research institutes, including Bragg, Radiopharm, Materials and Environment. These institutes alone include about 300 research and technical support staff. ANSTO's major neutron facility is the Open Pool Australian Light Water Reactor (OPAL). It is a 20 MW pool reactor using low enriched uranium fuel, and cooled by water. It is a multipurpose facility for radioisotope production, irradiation services and neutron beam research.
- ItemDoiba manual: using PIXE and PIGE to their full potential with doiba(Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 2008-04) Siegele, R; Ionescu, M; Cohen, DDIn the early 1980s, Eric Clayton developed a software package for the analysis of Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) spectra at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). This package was called PIXAN and it is based on work by D.D. Cohen et al. and E. Clayton et al. The package is optimised for the batch analysis of a large number of similar samples. It uses a 2 step process to analyse PIXE spectra. Command line programs controlled by run control files that contain the parameters of the experiment facilitate the 2 steps of the analysis.
- ItemDoping of ZnO thin film with Eu using ion beams(Trans Tech Publications, 2010-01-01) Ionescu, M; Photongkam, P; Yu, DH; Siegele, R; Li, S; Cohen, DDModification of electric and magnetic properties of ZnO thin films was achieved by low energy Eu ion irradiation. The desired doping levels as well as the depth distribution of the dopant was controlled by the ion energy and the ion flux, following a simulated interaction between the doping ion and the host ZnO matrix of epitaxial ZnO (0001) films of approximatelly 200nm, grown on c-Al2O3 by PLD. The properties of the doped ZnO film depend in a critical way on the homogeneity of the doped ions throughout the entire film. The doping levels and the depth distribution of dopants were measured by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). The results show a uniform depth distribution of Eu, as well as some level of Al diffusion from the substrate and the presence of some low levels of H, N and O. PACS code: 68.49Sf; 74.78Bz.