Browsing by Author "Picken, SJ"
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- ItemDirect view on nanoionic proton mobility(Wiley-Blackwell, 2011-04-22) Chan, WK; Haverkate, LA; Borghols, WJH; Wagemaker, M; Picken, SJ; van Eck, ERH; Kentgens, APM; Johnson, MR; Kearley, GJ; Mulder, FMThe field of nanoionics is of great importance for the development of superior materials for devices that rely on the transport of charged ions, like fuel cells, batteries, and sensors. Often nanostructuring leads to enhanced ionic mobilities due to the induced space-charge effects. Here these large space-charge effects occurring in composites of the proton-donating solid acid CsHSO4 and the proton-accepting TiO2 or SiO2 are studied. CsHSO4 is chosen for this study because it can operate effectively as a fuel-cell electrolyte at elevated temperature while its low-temperature conductivity is increased upon nanostructuring. The composites have a negative enthalpy of formation for defects involving the transfer of protons from the acid to the acceptor. Very high defect densities of up to 10% of the available sites are observed by neutron diffraction. The effect on the mobility of the protons is observed directly using quasielastic neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Surprisingly large fractions of up to 25% of the hydrogen ions show orders-of-magnitude enhanced mobility in the nanostructured composites of TiO2 or SiO2, both in crystalline CsHSO4 and an amorphous fraction.© 2011, Wiley-Blackwell. The definitive version is available at www3.interscience.wiley.com
- ItemDispersive kinetics in discotic liquid crystals(American Physical Society, 2010-11-22) Kruglova, O; Mulder, FM; Kearley, GJ; Picken, SJ; Stride, JA; Paraschiv, I; Zuilhof, HThe dynamics of the discotic liquid-crystalline system, hexakis (n-hexyloxy) triphenylene (HAT6), is considered in the frame of the phenomenological model for rate processes proposed by Berlin. It describes the evolution of the system in the presence of the long-time scale correlations in the system, and we compare this with experimental quasielastic neutron scattering of the molecular assembly of HAT6 in the columnar phase. We interpret the parameters of this model in terms of nonextensive thermodynamics in which rare events in the local fast dynamics of some parts of the system control the slower dynamics of the larger molecular entity and lead to a fractional diffusion equation. The importance of these rare local events to the overall dynamics of the system is linked to the entropic index, this being obtained from the data within the model approach. Analysis of the waiting-time dependence from momentum transfer reveals a Lévy distribution of jump lengths, which allows us to construct the van Hove correlation function for discotic liquid-crystalline system. © 2010, American Physical Society
- ItemElectronic and vibronic properties of a discotic liquid-crystal and its charge transfer complex(AIP Publishing, 2014-01-06) Haverkate, LA; Zbiri, M; Johnson, MR; Carter, EA; Kotlewski, A; Picken, SJ; Mulder, FM; Kearley, GJDiscotic liquid crystalline (DLC) charge transfer (CT) complexes combine visible light absorption and rapid charge transfer characteristics, being favorable properties for photovoltaic (PV) applications. We present a detailed study of the electronic and vibrational properties of the prototypic 1:1 mixture of discotic 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakishexyloxytriphenylene (HAT6) and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF). It is shown that intermolecular charge transfer occurs in the ground state of the complex: a charge delocalization of about 10−2 electron from the HAT6 core to TNF is deduced from both Raman and our previous NMR measurements [L. A. Haverkate, M. Zbiri, M. R. Johnson, B. Deme, H. J. M. de Groot, F. Lefeber, A. Kotlewski, S. J. Picken, F. M. Mulder, and G. J. Kearley, J. Phys. Chem. B116, 13098 (2012)], implying the presence of permanent dipoles at the donor-acceptor interface. A combined analysis of density functional theory calculations, resonant Raman and UV-VIS absorption measurements indicate that fast relaxation occurs in the UV region due to intramolecular vibronic coupling of HAT6 quinoidal modes with lower lying electronic states. Relatively slower relaxation in the visible region the excited CT-band of the complex is also indicated, which likely involves motions of the TNF nitro groups. The fast quinoidal relaxation process in the hot UV band of HAT6 relates to pseudo-Jahn-Teller interactions in a single benzene unit, suggesting that the underlying vibronic coupling mechanism can be generic for polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Both the presence of ground state CT dipoles and relatively slow relaxation processes in the excited CT band can be relevant concerning the design of DLC based organic PV systems. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.
- ItemOn the morphology of a discotic liquid crystalline charge transfer complex(American Chemical Society, 2012-10-01) Haverkate, LA; Zbiri, M; Johnson, MR; Deme, B; de Groot, HJM; Lefeber, F; Kotlewski, A; Picken, SJ; Mulder, FM; Kearley, GJDiscotic liquid crystalline (DLC) charge transfer (CT) complexes, which combine visible light absorption with rapid charge transfer characteristics within the CT complex, can have a great potential for photovoltaic applications when they can be made to self-assemble in a bulk heterojunction arrangement with separate channels for electron and hole conduction. However, the morphology of some liquid crystalline CT complexes has been under debate for many years. In particular, the liquid crystalline CT complex built from the electron acceptor 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF) and discotic molecules has been reported to have the TNF "sandwiched" either between the discotic molecules within the same column or between the columns within the aliphatic tails of the discotic molecules. We present a detailed structural study of the prototypic 1:1 mixture of the discotic 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakis(hexyloxy)triphenylene (HAT6) and TNF. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) line widths and cross-polarization rates are consistent with the picosecond time scale anisotropic thermal motions of the HAT6 and TNF molecules previously observed. By computational integration of Rietveld refinement analyses of neutron diffraction patterns with density experiments and short-range structural constraints from heteronuclear 2D NMR, we determine that the TNF molecules are vertically oriented between HAT6 columns. The data provide the insight that a morphology of separate hole conducting channels of HAT6 molecules can be realized in the liquid crystalline CT complex. © 2012, American Chemical Society.