Browsing by Author "Li, KM"
Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
Results Per Page
- ItemDifferential behavioural and neurochemical outcomes from chronic paroxetine treatment in adolescent and adult rats: a model of adverse antidepressant effects in human adolescents?(International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology., 2011-05-01) Karanges, E; Li, KM; Motbey, CP; Callaghan, PD; Katsifis, A; McGregor, ISSelective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use is associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation in adolescent humans, yet the neuropharmacological basis of this phenomenon is unknown. Consequently, we examined the behavioural and neurochemical effects of chronic paroxetine (PRX) treatment in adult and adolescent rats. Rats received PRX in their drinking water (target dose 10 mg/kg) for 22 d, during which time they were assessed for depression- and anxiety-like behaviours. Subsequent ex-vivo analyses examined serum PRX concentrations, striatal neurotransmitter content, and regional serotonin and dopamine transporter (SERT, DAT) binding density. After 11–12 d treatment, PRX-treated adolescent rats showed a significant inhibition of social interaction while adults were unaffected. After 19–20 d treatment, adolescents failed to show an antidepressant-like effect of PRX treatment on the forced swim test (FST), while PRX-treated adults showed a typical decrease in immobility and increase in swimming. Two PRX-treated adolescents died unexpectedly after the FST suggesting a compromised response to physical stress. Despite their greater apparent adverse reaction to the drug, adolescents had significantly lower plasma PRX than adults at day 22 of treatment. Chronic PRX treatment had similar effects in adults and adolescents on striatal 5-HT (unchanged relative to controls) and 5-HIAA levels (decreased), while markers of dopaminergic function (DOPAC, HVA, DA turnover) were increased in adults only. SERT density was up-regulated in the amygdala in PRX-treated adolescents only while DAT density in the nucleus accumbens was down-regulated only in PRX-treated adults. These data suggest that the immature rat brain responds differently to PRX and that this might be of use in modelling the atypical response of human adolescents to antidepressants. The age-specific PRX-induced changes in dopaminergic markers and SERT and DAT binding provide clues as to the neural mechanisms underlying adverse PRX effects in adolescent humans. © 2011, Cambridge University Press
- ItemThe differential binding of antipsychotic drugs to the ABC transporter P-glycoprotein predicts cannabinoid–antipsychotic drug interactions(Springer, 2017-03-08) Brzozowska, NI; de Tonnerre, EJ; Li, KM; Wang, XS; Boucher, AA; Callaghan, PD; Kuligowski, M; Wong, A; Arnold, JCCannabis use increases rates of psychotic relapse and treatment failure in schizophrenia patients. Clinical studies suggest that cannabis use reduces the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs, but there has been no direct demonstration of this in a controlled study. The present study demonstrates that exposure to the principal phytocannabinoid, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), reverses the neurobehavioral effects of the antipsychotic drug risperidone in mice. THC exposure did not influence D2 and 5-HT2A receptor binding, the major targets of antipsychotic action, but it lowered the brain concentrations of risperidone and its active metabolite, 9-hydroxy risperidone. As risperidone and its active metabolite are excellent substrates of the ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), we hypothesized that THC might increase P-gp expression at the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and thus enhance efflux of risperidone and its metabolite from brain tissue. We confirmed that the brain disposition of risperidone and 9-hydroxy risperidone is strongly influenced by P-gp, as P-gp knockout mice displayed greater brain concentrations of these drugs than wild-type mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that THC exposure increased P-gp expression in various brain regions important to risperidone’s antipsychotic action. We then showed that THC exposure did not influence the neurobehavioral effects of clozapine. Clozapine shares a very similar antipsychotic mode of action to risperidone, but unlike risperidone is not a P-gp substrate. Our results imply that clozapine or non-P-gp substrate antipsychotic drugs may be better first-line treatments for schizophrenia patients with a history of cannabis use. © 2017 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, published by Springer Nature Limited.
- ItemHigh levels of intravenous mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) self-administration in rats: neural consequences and comparison with methamphetamine(British Association for Psychopharmacology, 2013-06-05) Motbey, CP; Clemens, KJ; Apetz, N; Winstock, AR; Ramsey, J; Li, KM; Wyatt, NA; Callaghan, PD; Bowen, MT; Cornish, JL; McGregor, ISMephedrone (MMC) is a relatively new recreational drug that has rapidly increased in popularity in recent years. This study explored the characteristics of intravenous MMC self-administration in the rat, with methamphetamine (METH) used as a comparator drug. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to nose poke for intravenous MMC or METH in daily 2 h sessions over a 10 d acquisition period. Dose-response functions were then established under fixed- and progressive-ratio (FR and PR) schedules over three subsequent weeks of testing. Brains were analyzed ex vivo for striatal serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) levels and metabolites, while autoradiography assessed changes in the regional density of 5-HT and serotonin transporter (SERT) and DA transporter (DAT) and induction of the inflammation marker translocator protein (TSPO). Results showed that MMC was readily and vigorously self-administered via the intravenous route. Under a FR1 schedule, peak responding for MMC was obtained at 0.1 mg/kg/infusion, versus 0.01 mg/kg/infusion for METH. Break points under a PR schedule peaked at 1 mg/kg/infusion MMC versus 0.3 mg/kg/infusion for METH. Final intakes of MMC were 31.3 mg/kg/d compared to 4 mg/kg/d for METH. Rats self-administering MMC, but not METH, gained weight at a slower rate than control rats. METH, but not MMC, self-administration elevated TSPO receptor density in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus, while MMC, but not METH, self-administration decreased striatal 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations. In summary, MMC supported high levels of self-administration, matching or exceeding those previously reported with other drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2020 by British Association for Psychopharmacology
- ItemMephedrone in adolescent rats: residual memory impairment and acute but not lasting 5-HT depletion(PLOS, 2012-09-18) Motbey, CP; Karanges, E; Li, KM; Wilkinson, S; Winstock, AR; Ramsey, J; Hicks, C; Kendig, MD; Wyatt, NA; Callaghan, PD; McGregor, ISMephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone, MMC) is a popular recreational drug, yet its potential harms are yet to be fully established. The current study examined the impact of single or repeated MMC exposure on various neurochemical and behavioral measures in rats. In Experiment 1 male adolescent Wistar rats received single or repeated (once a day for 10 days) injections of MMC (30 mg/kg) or the comparator drug methamphetamine (METH, 2.5 mg/kg). Both MMC and METH caused robust hyperactivity in the 1 h following injection although this effect did not tend to sensitize with repeated treatment. Striatal dopamine (DA) levels were increased 1 h following either METH or MMC while striatal and hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) levels were decreased 1 h following MMC but not METH. MMC caused greater increases in 5-HT metabolism and greater reductions in DA metabolism in rats that had been previously exposed to MMC. Autoradiographic analysis showed no signs of neuroinflammation ([125I]CLINDE ligand used as a marker for translocator protein (TSPO) expression) with repeated exposure to either MMC or METH. In Experiment 2, rats received repeated MMC (7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg once a day for 10 days) and were examined for residual behavioral effects following treatment. Repeated high (30 mg/kg) dose MMC produced impaired novel object recognition 5 weeks after drug treatment. However, no residual changes in 5-HT or DA tissue levels were observed at 7 weeks post-treatment. Overall these results show that MMC causes acute but not lasting changes in DA and 5-HT tissue concentrations. MMC can also cause long-term memory impairment. Future studies of cognitive function in MMC users are clearly warranted. © 2012 Motbey et al.