Browsing by Author "Kamenev, KV"
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- ItemCarbon molecules in space: a thermal equation of state study of solid hexamethylenetetramine(Australian Institute of Physics, 2020-02-04) Novelli, G; McIntyre, GJ; Maynard-Casely, HE; Marshall, WG; Kamenev, KV; Parsons, SProperties such as compressibility, thermo-elasticity and the energy landscape remain unknown for many organic compounds under conditions encountered on extraterrestrial planets and moons and in space. In this study, a thermal Equation of State (EoS) for the crystalline solid hexamethylenetetramine was determined by neutron powder diffraction in the temperature and pressure ranges of 113-480 K and 0-5 GPa, respectively. The material was chosen as a molecular model for its high symmetry and its property of remaining in the same phase throughout the experimental conditions selected to simulate the planetary environments. Equations of States (EoSs) show how the thermodynamic variables of temperature (T), pressure (P) and volume (V) are inter-related. The ideal gas law, PV = nRT, is an example of an EoS which is used as a simple but effective model to explain the properties of gases. More complex EoSs, where the assumption of ideality is relaxed, can be applied to solids in order to describe how the geometry and energy transform when they experience dramatic changes in their environment. Such information acquires enormous importance in planetary materials science, where scientists are trying to understand the fate of carbon, the fourth most abundant element in our galaxy, in the context of the origin of life and planetary environments. Despite the large heterogeneity of galactic and interstellar regions, the organic chemistry of the universe seems to follow common pathways. Molecules of high astrobiological and astrophysical relevance such as amino acids, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and N-heterocycles have been identified across the solar system, but how they behave under such varied conditions is a question yet to be answered. Key to our approach was the determination of how the internal energy (U), entropy (S) and the Gibbs free energy (G) vary with pressure not only computationally, but also, and for the first time, experimentally. A new method has been developed, able to transform directly variable-PT crystallographic data into thermodynamic information. Although it is quite common to model thermal expansion at ambient pressure with a VTEoS, and compression at ambient temperature using a PV-EoS, determinations of PVT-EoSs are much less common, particularly for organic materials. This paucity of PTV-EoSs reflects the difficulty of varying pressure and temperature simultaneously in crystallographic experiments, especially at reduced temperatures. The task was addressed in this study by the variable-temperature insert for the Paris-Edinburgh press available on the PEARL instrument at the ISIS Neutron Spallation Source (UK). The results were successfully combined with periodic DFT (Figure 1) and other semiempirical calculations, where pressure and temperature can be included at little time cost, enabling the stability profile of the material to be understood, right down to the level of individual intermolecular interactions.
- ItemDevelopment of high-pressure single-crystal neutron diffraction on the Laue diffractometer, KOALA, at OPAL(Australian Institute of Physics, 2016-02-04) Binns, J; McIntyre, GJ; Kamenev, KV; Moggach, S; Parsons, SHydrogen bonds are one of the most important classes of intermolecular interaction, and accurate H-atom positions are critical for analysis of the energy terms which determine the thermodynamic stability of molecular crystals. At ambient pressure and low temperatures, H atoms can often be located by X-ray diffraction, and X-ray data can provide an accurate picture of the intermolecular contacts. High-pressure experiments do not afford this luxury. The high systematic errors introduced by the pressure cell and low completeness mean that H-atom positions are not revealed in X-ray Fourier maps. In some compounds H-atom positions can be inferred from the positions of other atoms, but this is not possible in all cases. Neutron diffraction data are much more sensitive to H than are X-ray data, and they are essential in cases where accurate H-atom location is important. Neutron powder patterns of complex molecular systems suffer from extensive peak overlap, and single-crystal diffraction therefore has a huge advantage; there is also no need to deuterate. The main disadvantage of neutron diffraction is that a large sample is usually required, which is at odds with the decreasing volumes possible with increasing pressure with existing pressure-cell materials. Modern neutron Laue diffraction and large moissanite anvil cells offer some respite 1, but complementing high-pressure X-ray data with high-pressure neutron data is still fraught with technical challenges to obtain identical conditions. Initial developmental experiments using a miniature diamond-anvil cell with a single crystal of size typical for X-ray diffraction on the KOALA Laue diffractometer at OPAL have shown the feasibility of the Laue technique for single-crystal neutron studies at high pressure. Remarkably, data completeness is similar to ambient-pressure measurements, despite the presence of the pressure cell. It is now possible to perform joint X-ray and neutron studies on the same sample under identical conditions.
- ItemInvestigating carbon molecules with pressure-volume-temperature equations of state(Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 2019-09-03) Novelli, G; McIntyre, GJ; Maynard-Casely, HE; Funnell, NP; Marshall, WG; Kamenev, KV; Parsons, SWe are interested in intermolecular interactions which determine thermodynamic stability in crystalline solids and their response to changes in the external conditions. In no area is this information of more importance than in planetary materials science, where scientists are trying to understand the fate of carbon in the context of the origin of life and/or the varied planetary surfaces observed. Molecules of high astrobiological and astrophysical relevance, such as amino acids (1), polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and N-heterocycles (2), have been identified across the Universe but how they behave under such varying conditions is a question yet to be answered. Key to our approach is the determination of the internal-energy, entropy and the Gibbs free energy - not only computationally but also, and for the first time, experimentally. We have developed a new method that transforms variable-pressure (P)-temperature (T) crystallographic data into thermodynamic information. Equations of State (EoSs) are the models of choice to fit these data, describing how pressure, temperature, and volume (V) are inter related in solid phases. Although it is quite common to model thermal expansion at ambient pressure with a VT equation of state (EoS), and compression at ambient temperature using a PV-EoS, determinations of PVT-EoSs are much less common, particularly for molecular materials (3). The paucity of PVT-EoSs reflects the difficulty in varying pressure and temperature simultaneously in crystallographic experiments, especially at reduced temperatures. These difficulties are addressed by the variable temperature insert for the Paris-Edinburgh press available on the PEARL instrument at the ISIS Neutron Spallation Source (4) and by the cryofurnace for the Merrill-Bassett cell available on the KOALA instrument at the ANSTO OPAL reactor (5). The results can then be combined with Periodic DFT and other semi-empirical calculations, where pressure and temperature can be included at little time cost, enabling the stability profile of a material to be understood, right down to the level of individual intermolecular interactions. Many classes of structure-directing intermolecular interactions involve hydrogen atoms: hydrogen bonds are an obvious example, but hydrogens can also be involved in dispersion and electrostatic interactions. The responses of different kind of crystalline organics containing these interactions, such as hexamethylenetetramine, naphthalene, histidine, and alanine are to be studied using powder and single-crystal neutron diffraction up to 5 GPa and between 105-480 K. We are specifically using neutron diffraction for the experiments because of its sensitivity to locate hydrogen atoms. Additionally, the penetrating nature of neutron radiation means that complete, high-quality data can be obtained for samples in elaborate extreme-conditions environments.
- Item[Mn-6] under pressure: a combined crystallographic and magnetic study(Wiley-VCH Verlag Berlin, 2008-03) Prescimone, A; Milios, CJ; Moggach, S; Warren, JE; Lennie, AR; Sanchez-Benitez, J; Kamenev, KV; Bircher, R; Murrie, M; Parsons, S; Brechin, EKFolding under pressure: High-pressure crystallography of an Mn6 single-molecule magnet reveals dramatic changes in the intramolecular geometry of the magnetic core. These structural changes effect the magnetic properties of the molecule: the magnitude of the ferromagnetic exchange between the metals is decreased, and under extreme pressure switches to antiferromagnetic. © 2008, Wiley-VCH Verlag Berlin
- ItemA non-topological mechanism for negative linear compressibility(Royal Society of Chemistry, 2016-05-13) Binns, J; Kamenev, KV; Marriott, KER; McIntyre, GJ; Moggach, SA; Murrie, M; Parsons, SNegative linear compressibility (NLC), the increase in a unit cell length with pressure, is a rare phenomenon in which hydrostatic compression of a structure promotes expansion along one dimension. It is usually a consequence of crystal structure topology. We show that the source of NLC in the Co(II) citrate metal–organic framework UTSA-16 lies not in framework topology, but in the relative torsional flexibility of Co(II)-centred tetrahedra compared to more rigid octahedra.© Open Access CC BY Licence - The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016
- ItemStructural studies of phase transitions in hybrid organic-inorganic salts with temperature and pressure(Australian Institute of Physics, 2014-02-04) Binns, J; Parsons, S; Moggach, S; Valiente, R; McIntyre, GJ; Kamenev, KVThe alkylammonium tetrachlorometallates have attracted significant attention for the numerous phase transitions observed in a relatively narrow range of temperatures and pressures as well as ferroelectric,-elastic and -magnetic behaviours. [1,2] Such simple organic salts could find possible applications as thin-film functional materials in low cost ferroelectric capacitors and RAM. With the exception of bis(tetramethylammonium) tetrachlorozincate(II) this class of materials has been subject to relatively little structural investigation, with a number of general phase sequences being determined from calorimetric and polarisation measurements. [3,4] While there are known to be ferroelectric phase transitions in many of these materials, the exact mechanism by which these simple organic salts exhibit such behaviour is unknown. We report on the phase sequences observed in two related materials: tetramethylammonium tetrachloroferrate(III) (TCF), and the previously unknown tetramethylammonium tetrachlorogallate(III) (TCG) which display re-entrant as well as plastic crystalline phases.
- ItemTowards joint high-pressure x-ray and neutron single-crystal diffraction(International Union of Crystallography, 2017-01) McIntyre, GJ; Binns, J; Kamenev, KV; Moggach, S; Parsons, SDiffraction methods can provide the highest-quality structural information about a crystal on the atomic scale and much work has been carried out to adapt X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques to a variety of challenging sample environments, including high-pressure. The ability to influence directly intermolecular distances makes high pressure one of the most important tools at our disposal for answering one of the big questions in chemistry - the prediction and control of solid-state structure. Modern neutron Laue diffractometers with large image-plate detectors permit extensive continuous sampling of reciprocal space with high resolution in the two-dimensional projection and a wide dynamic range with negligible bleeding of intense diffraction spots, qualities that are highly suited to high-pressure crystallography . Here we show that high-pressure single-crystal neutron diffraction data can be collected using Laue diffraction from a sample of hexamine in a miniature diamond-anvil cell (mini-DAC) with no significant reductions in completeness or resolution . The data are of similar quality, as judged by R-factors, geometric parameters, and estimated standard deviations, to those obtained at ambient pressures. This is achieved by the ability to measure diffracted intensity directly through the body of the mini-DAC. Joint high-pressure experiments using both X-ray and neutron diffraction on the same sample are now feasible using the mini-DAC and modern neutron Laue diffractometers like KOALA on the OPAL reactor. © International Union of Crystallography
- ItemUse of a miniature diamond-anvil cell in a joint x-ray and neutron high-pressure study on copper sulfate pentahydrate(International Union of Crystallography, 2022-01) Novelli, G; Kamenev, KV; Maynard-Casely, HE; Parsons, S; McIntyre, GJSingle-crystal X-ray and neutron diffraction data are usually collected using separate samples. This is a disadvantage when the sample is studied at high pressure because it is very difficult to achieve exactly the same pressure in two separate experiments, especially if the neutron data are collected using Laue methods where precise absolute values of the unit-cell dimensions cannot be measured to check how close the pressures are. In this study, diffraction data have been collected under the same conditions on the same sample of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, using a conventional laboratory diffractometer and source for the X-ray measurements and the Koala single-crystal Laue diffractometer at the ANSTO facility for the neutron measurements. The sample, of dimensions 0.40 × 0.22 × 0.20 mm3 and held at a pressure of 0.71 GPa, was contained in a miniature Merrill–Bassett diamond-anvil cell. The highly penetrating diffracted neutron beams passing through the metal body of the miniature cell as well as through the diamonds yielded data suitable for structure refinement, and compensated for the low completeness of the X-ray measurements, which was only 24% on account of the triclinic symmetry of the sample and the shading of reciprocal space by the cell. The two data-sets were combined in a single `XN' structure refinement in which all atoms, including H atoms, were refined with anisotropic displacement parameters. The precision of the structural parameters was improved by a factor of up to 50% in the XN refinement compared with refinements using the X-ray or neutron data separately. Published under an open-access licence.
- ItemUse of a miniature diamond-anvil cell in high-pressure single-crystal neutron Laue diffraction(International Union of Crystallography, 2016-05) Binns, J; Kamenev, KV; McIntyre, GJ; Moggach, SA; Parsons, SThe first high-pressure neutron diffraction study in a miniature diamond-anvil cell of a single crystal of size typical for X-ray diffraction is reported. This is made possible by modern Laue diffraction using a large solid-angle image-plate detector. An unexpected finding is that even reflections whose diffracted beams pass through the cell body are reliably observed, albeit with some attenuation. The cell body does limit the range of usable incident angles, but the crystallographic completeness for a high-symmetry unit cell is only slightly less than for a data collection without the cell. Data collections for two sizes of hexamine single crystals, with and without the pressure cell, and at 300 and 150 K, show that sample size and temperature are the most important factors that influence data quality. Despite the smaller crystal size and dominant parasitic scattering from the diamond-anvil cell, the data collected allow a full anisotropic refinement of hexamine with bond lengths and angles that agree with literature data within experimental error. This technique is shown to be suitable for low-symmetry crystals, and in these cases the transmission of diffracted beams through the cell body results in much higher completeness values than are possible with X-rays. The way is now open for joint X-ray and neutron studies on the same sample under identical conditions. © International Union of Crystallography - Open Access