Browsing by Author "James, S"
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- ItemMedium Energy Spectroscopy (MEX) - sample environments and supporting infrastructure(Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 2021-11-26) Lamb, K; Glover, CJ; James, S; Finch, E; Wykes, JLThe Medium Energy Spectroscopy (MEX) beamline aims to facilitate a wide variety of ex- and in-situ experimental work from a variety of research areas. As such, we will provide a number of sample environments as standard set-up, in addition to ancillary equipment that can be used with custom or BYO sample environments. Sample environments will likely include; room temperature cell, electrochemical flow cell, micro-fluidic cell, flammable gas cell, furnace with gas environments,and a battery testing cell. In addition, supporting infrastructure and ancillary equipment will likely include; flammable and toxic gas handling (flow and pressure control), gas and vapor ventilation, electrochemical testing station (Autolab or similar), fluid (gas or vapour) syringe pumps with pressure monitoring. Most, if not all, of the sample environments and supporting infrastructure will be controlled with the beamline systems, enabling integration and triggering for maximum achievable automation of experiments.© 2021 The Authors
- ItemStudying biological coordination chemistry: a useful role for low latency, energy-dispersive photon counting XRF detectors(Australian Microscopy and Microanalysis Society, 2016-02-04) James, S; de Jonge, MD; McColl, G; Burke, R; Paterson, DJ; Howard, DL; Hare, DDay to day cellular function is fundamentally dependent on electron transfer reactions mediated by transition metals, often iron and/or copper. The biological consequences of this metal-catalysed redox chemistry arise from biochemical context generated via the multi-scale organisation of biological systems, i.e. the local concentration of metal → the nature of the donor atoms and bonding environment within the ligand → the location and abundance of the ligand within the cell → the suite of metal-ligand complexes comprising a cell’s metallome → the differences between one cell’s instance of it’s metallome compared to another within and between tissues. Biochemical insight must be anchored to the structural biology of the cell. In this view, understanding metallobiology requires us to interrogate the coordination environment of biological metal-ligand complexes in situ, and the lack of suitable probes limits our appreciation for the role metallobiology plays in health and disease. Ideally, such probes must exhibit extremely high specificity, sensitivity, and spatial resolution; requirements met by scanning X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) and X-ray Emission Near Edge Structure (XENES). Advances in energy-dispersive detector technology have enormously enhanced the efficiency and speed of data acquisition when performing XFM and XENES measurements. When using the Maia detector system installed at the Australian Synchrotron XFM beamline the distribution of biometals can be mapped at rates in excess of 3 M pix / hr. This speed reduces imaging dose whilst maintaining counting statistics. Exploiting these technical advances we have undertaken a multi-pronged assault on characterising elemental distribution and speciation in a variety of whole- organism biological systems, including Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. We have utilised projective elemental mapping and 3D visualisations of elemental distributions to assess the distribution of chemical speciation through XENES imaging and tomography. The complementarity of these studies demonstrates that volumetric chemical speciation is achievable with the right instrumentation and approach to measurement but projective imaging can still provide a window into fundamental biological processes. Opportunities and challenges associated with visualizing in situ biometal speciation will be discussed.