Browsing by Author "Cohen, DD"
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- ItemAccelerator based ion beam analysis techniques contribute to a better understanding of long range fine particle pollution in Asia(International Atomic Energy Agency, 2012-09-15) Cohen, DD; Stelcer, E; Crawford, J; Bac, VTFine-particle pollution in large populated Asian cities can be very high compared with internationally accepted health goals. Much of this fine-particle pollution is produced by motor vehicles, fossil-fuel combustion, industrial processes and even windblown soils from desert regions. As part of a long term project in the Asian region with support from the IAEA, ANSTO has been using nuclear techniques not only to characterize fine-particle pollution, but also to quantify their sources and origins within Vietnam. © International Atomic Energy Agency
- ItemAirborne ultrafine particles in a Pacific Island country: characteristics, sources and implications for human exposure(Elsevier, 2017-09-25) Isley, CF; Nelson, PF; Taylor, MP; Mazaheri, M; Morawska, L; Atanacio, AJ; Stelcer, E; Cohen, DD; Morrison, ALThe Pacific Islands carry a perception of having clean air, yet emissions from transport and burning activities are of concern in regard to air quality and health. Ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNCs), one of the best metrics to demonstrate combustion emissions, have not been measured either in Suva or elsewhere in the Islands. This work provides insight into PNC variation across Suva and its relationship with particle mass (PM) concentration and composition. Measurements over a short monitoring campaign provide a vignette of conditions in Suva. Ambient PNCs were monitored for 8 day at a fixed location, and mobile PNC sampling for two days. These were compared with PM concentration (TSP, PM10, PM2.5, PM1) and are discussed in relation to black carbon (BC) content and PM2.5 sources, determined from elemental concentrations; for the October 2015 period and longer-term data. Whilst Suva City PM levels remained fairly low, PM2.5 = 10–12 μg m−3, mean PNC (1.64 ± 0.02 × 104 cm−3) was high compared to global data. PNCs were greater during mobile sampling, with means of 10.3 ± 1.4 × 104 cm−3 and 3.51 ± 0.07 × 104 cm−3 when travelling by bus and taxi, respectively. Emissions from road vehicles, shipping, diesel and open burning were identified as PM sources for the October 2015 period. Transport related ultrafine particle emissions had a significant impact on microscale ambient concentrations, with PNCs near roads being 1.5 to 2 times higher than nearby outdoor locations and peak PNCs occurring during peak traffic times. Further data, particularly on transport and wet-season exposures, are required to confirm results. Understanding PNC in Suva will assist in formulating effective air emissions control strategies, potentially reducing population exposure across the Islands and in developing countries with similar emission characteristics. Suva's PNC was high in comparison to global data; high exposures were related to transport and combustion emissions, which were also identified as significant PM2.5 sources. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.
- ItemAmbient air quality and indoor exposure: PM2.5 implications for health in Suva Fiji(Clean Air Society of Australia and New Zealand, 2018-03-01) Isley, CF; Nelson, PF; Taylor, MP; Morrison, AL; Atanacio, AJ; Stelcer, E; Cohen, DDAir quality data collected at urban background locations is often assumed to represent a wider urban area. Localised sources and conditions can however cause variation between different microenvironments in the same urban area. Differences in PM2.5 (particulate less than 2.5 μm) composition may also have greater implications for health outcomes than PM2.5 concentration considered alone. Samples of PM2.5 were collected for three outdoor and nine indoor microenvironments across Suva, Fiji in 2014/15. Elemental concentration data have been used to estimate source contributions to PM2.5 for each site. The 12 sites are compared to concurrent ambient measurements at a fixed monitoring site in Suva City and to ambient photometer data. The objective is to determine how well ambient measurements represent air quality across the city, including indoor environments. Surveys were used to determine how much time is spent indoors and outdoors by Suva residents to ascertain potential exposure risks. Results show that PM2.5 concentration and composition varies significantly between the different microenvironments studied. Indoor air quality was affected by both ambient air and indoor sources. Fuel used for cooking, particularly wood and kerosene, influenced indoor PM2.5 and black carbon. Given that the survey showed that people spend more time indoors than outdoors, as experienced elsewhere in the world, ambient measures of PM2.5 concentration and calculated related health risk does not accurately reflect exposures arising from city indoor microenvironments. © 2018 The Clean Air Society of Australia and New Zealand
- ItemANSTO heavy ion ToF for analysis of light elements in thin films(Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE), 2007-11) Ionescu, M; Zhao, Y; Siegele, R; Cohen, DD; Lynch, D; Garton, D; Stelcer, E; Prior, MJThin films have various potential applications in electronic devices, and their performance is intricately linked with the electric and magnetic properties of the film, in which an important role is played by the presence of light elements, in particular Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen. The source of light elements, the form in which they are incorporated into the thin film, and how this is influencing the MgB2 thin film properties is currently under scrutiny by various research groups. Typically these films are grown on oxide ceramic substrates, such as Al2O3-C and it is possible that the source of Oxygen is the substrate itself or the growth atmosphere. Here we report on a study of light elements in MgB2 thin films grown on various substrates, using heavy ions recoil and a time-of-flight detector. A series of MgB2 thin film samples produced by PLD (pulsed laser deposition) were analyzed, including films produced in-situ on Al2O3-C substrates with an on-axis and off-axis geometry, one film produced in-situ with an off-axis geometry, and one film produced ex-situ, with a bulk-like Tc. We also analyzed one film produced with on-axis geometry under the same conditions on Si (001) substrate. The amount of Oxygen detected by ToF, appears to be correlated with the Tc of the films, the higher the Tc the lower the oxygen content. Also, the superconducting properties of the examined thin films are discussed in the context of the results.
- ItemANSTO’s accelerators(Australian Institute of Physics, 2005-01-31) Zoppi, U; Cohen, DD; Garton, DThroughout its history, ANSTO demonstrated sustained excellence in accelerator-based science and technology. The 40 years old KN3000 Van de Graaff accelerator provided more than 110 000 running hours. The 10 MV ANTARES Tandem Accelerator is delivering leading edge Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) services. An additional HVEE 2 MV Tandetron accelerator has been recently commissioned and is expected to be applied across a very wide range of applications utilising IBA and AMS techniques. After a short review of the technical aspect of the 3 ANSTO accelerators, we will present a summary of the most exciting accelerator applications across a wide variety of scientific fields including air pollution, radiocarbon dating of precious artefacts and global climate change studies. © (2005) Australian Institute of Physics.
- ItemAnthropogenic perturbations to the atmospheric molybdenum cycle(American Geophysical Union, 2021-01-28) Wong, MY; Rathod, SD; Marino, R; Li, LL; Howarth, RW; Alastuey, A; Alaimo, MG; Barraza, F; Carneiro, MC; Chellam, S; Chen, YC; Cohen, DD; Connelly, D; Dongarra, G; Gómez, D; Hand, JL; Harrison, RM; Hopke, PK; Hueglin, c; Kuang, KW; Lambert, F; Liang, J; Losno, R; Maenhaut, W; Milando, C; Monteiro, MIC; Morera-Gómez, Y; Rodríguez, S; Querol, X; Smichowski, P; Varrica, D; Xiao, YH; Xu, YJ; Mahowald, NMMolybdenum (Mo) is a key cofactor in enzymes used for nitrogen (N) fixation and nitrate reduction, and the low availability of Mo can constrain N inputs, affecting ecosystem productivity. Natural atmospheric Mo aerosolization and deposition from sources such as desert dust, sea-salt spray, and volcanoes can affect ecosystem function across long timescales, but anthropogenic activities such as combustion, motor vehicles, and agricultural dust have accelerated the natural Mo cycle. Here we combined a synthesis of global atmospheric concentration observations and modeling to identify and estimate anthropogenic sources of atmospheric Mo. To project the impact of atmospheric Mo on terrestrial ecosystems, we synthesized soil Mo data and estimated the global distribution of soil Mo using two approaches to calculate turnover times. We estimated global emissions of atmospheric Mo in aerosols (<10 μm in diameter) to be 23 Gg Mo yr−1, with 40%–75% from anthropogenic sources. We approximated that for the top meter of soil, Mo turnover times range between 1,000 and 1,000,000 years. In some industrialized regions, anthropogenic inputs have enhanced Mo deposition 100-fold, lowering the soil Mo turnover time considerably. Our synthesis of global observational data, modeling, and a mass balance comparison with riverine Mo exports suggest that anthropogenic activity has greatly accelerated the Mo cycle, with potential to influence N-limited ecosystems. © 2022 American Geophysical Union
- ItemThe APAD and ASFID: long-term fine and coarse ambient particulate matter and source fingerprint databases for the Asia-Pacific region(Clean Air Society of Australia and New Zealand, 2016-08-01) Atanacio, AJ; Cohen, DD; Begum, BA; Ni, BF; Pandit, GG; Sahu, SK; Santoso, M; Lestiani, DD; Lim, JM; Rahman, SA; Elias, MS; Shagjjamba, D; Markwitz, A; Waheed, S; Siddique, N; Pabroa, PCB; Santos, FL; Seneviratne, MCS; Handagiripathira, L; Wimolwattanapun, W; Vuong, TB; Karydas, AAmbient particulate matter (APM) pollution, often generically referred to as smog or haze, is a global problem impacting every country and region in the world to varying degrees. Countries within the rapidly developing Asia-Pacific region have much higher levels of APM compared with many internationally recognised health goals. This paper presents two new aerosol databases compiled as the result of a long-term project spanning 15 years and involving 14 countries in the Asia-Pacific region under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The first database, named the Asia-Pacific Aerosol Database (APAD), contains the elemental concentration and associated error and minimum detectable limits (MDL) for 14,016 APM samples collected between 2002 and 2015. The second database, named the Asia-Pacific Source Fingerprint Database (ASFID), contains receptor source fingerprints and source apportionment solutions obtained by each country from their APAD dataset using positive matrix factorisation (PMF) methods. © 2016 The Clean Air Society of Australia and New Zealand
- ItemApiezon L-type grease coating of 8-µm Nuclepore Polycarbonate coarse filters used in GENT aerosol sampling units(Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 2006-04) Stelcer, E; Noorman, J; Button, D; Hawas, O; Cohen, DDCoarse stage Nuclepore filters used in GENT aerosol sampling units were coated with a thin film of Apiezon L-type grease in order to minimise the loss of particles on the filters due to 'bounce off'. Originally Freon was used as the solvent to dissolve the Apiezon grease in the coating process. Because of the environmental impact, Freon was discontinued and replaced with Fluorinert. Apiezon grease did not dissolve freely in the Fluorinert and it was replaced by Fomblin grease in 1995. This increased production costs and coated Nuclepore coarse filters ceased production in 2004. Users were concerned that their stocks of coated Nuclepore filters were diminishing and as no alternative supply was available the feasibility of coating the coarse filters in house needed to be investigated. This report describes experiments conducted at ANSTO and the results obtained during the investigation of the coating process under laboratory conditions. Apiezon grease and Toluene were used in this process. Experiments were based on the procedure proposed by Prof P. Hopke and Dr A. Markwitz  with modification to this technique to increase the uniformity of the grease layer across the filter surface and to achieve approximately 100 µg of Apiezon grease per filter.
- ItemThe application of IBA techniques to air pollution source fingerprinting and source apportionment(Elsevier Science BV, 2014-01-01) Cohen, DD; Stelcer, E; Atanacio, AJ; Crawford, JIBA techniques have been used to measure elemental concentrations of more than 20 different elements found in fine particle (PM2.5) air pollution. These data together with their errors and minimum detectable limits were used in Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) analyses to quantitatively determine source fingerprints and their contributions to the total measured fine mass. Wind speed and direction back trajectory data from the global HYSPLIT codes were then linked to these PMF fingerprints to quantitatively identify the location of the sources. © 2014, Elsevier Ltd.
- ItemApplication of positive matrix factorisation, multi-linear engine and back trajectory techniques to the quantification of coal-fired power station pollution in metropolitan Sydney(Pergamon Elsevier Science Ltd, 2012-12-01) Cohen, DD; Crawford, J; Stelcer, E; Atanacio, AJOver 900 fine particle Teflon filters were collected within the Sydney Basin between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2011 and analyzed using simultaneous PIXE, PIGE, RBS and PESA techniques to determine 21 different elements between hydrogen and lead. These elements were used in positive matrix factorization (PMF) and multi-linear engine (ME) techniques together with HYSPLIT wind back trajectory techniques to quantitatively determine source fingerprints and their contributions from coal-fired power stations. The power stations were many kilometers outside the greater Sydney metropolitan area but still had a significant impact on the fine particle mass loadings measured at the sampling site within this metropolitan area. The PM2.5 eleven year average mass at the sampling site was 6.48 mu g m(-3). The corresponding ammonium sulfate estimate was 1.65 mu g m(-3) or 26% of the PM2.5 mass. By applying back trajectory data and (ME) analysis methods, two power related fingerprints, secondary sulfate (2ndryS-Power) and aged industrial sulfur (IndSagedPower) were determined. These two power related fingerprints were responsible for between 14 and 18% of the total PM2.5 mass and 34-47% of the total sulfate measured at the sampling site. That is on average somewhere between a third and a half of all the sulfate measured in the greater Sydney region could be attributed to coal-fired power station emissions. © 2012, Elsevier Ltd.
- ItemApplication of proton induced x-ray emission to the element analysis of thick obsidian samples(Australian Atomic Energy Commission, 1979-11) Duerden, P; Cohen, DD; Clayton, EThe proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been applied to the analysis of element concentrations in obsidian source samples. No target preparation other than washing and the selection of a flat surface was undertaken. Thick target yields have been calculated and element concentrations derived from the detected X-ray spectra; concentrations are given for K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ta, and Pb. A pinhole filter is described which enables a single measurement of about 5 minutes duration to give element concentration data over an x-ray energy range 3-20 keV.
- ItemApplication of receptor modelling methods(Elsevier, 2011-04-01) Hopke, PK; Cohen, DDThe use of atmospheric compositional data for the identification and apportionment of sources has been ongoing for more than 40 years. Beginning in the 1960s, it was recognized that data analysis techniques could be applied to data and resolve combination of constituents that represent sources. In the late 1970s, these data analysis tools came to be called Receptor Models. This paper traces the early history of receptor models through those early papers and provides a historical introduction to the paper in this special issue showing the state of the art in the field and the application of these modern tools to a variety of atmospheric data. © 2011 Turkish National Committee for Air Pollution Research and Control (TUNCAP). © 2020 Elsevier B.V.
- ItemApportionment of sources of fine and coarse particles in four major Australian cities by positive matrix factorisation(Elsevier, 2008-01) Chan, YC; Cohen, DD; Hawas, O; Stelcer, E; Simpson, R; Denison, L; Wong, N; Hodge, M; Comino, E; Carswell, SIn this study, 437 days of 6-daily, 24-h samples Of PM2.5, PM2.5-10 and PM10 were collected over a 12-month period during 2003-2004 in Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane and Adelaide. The elemental, ionic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition of the particles were determined. Source apportionment was carried out by using the positive matrix factorisation software (PMF2). Eight factors were identified for the fine particle samples including 'motor vehicles', 'industry', 'other combustion sources', 'ammonium sulphates', 'nitrates', 'marine aerosols', 'chloride depleted marine aerosols' and 'crustal/soil dust'. On average combustion sources, secondary nitrates/sulphates and natural origin dust contributed about 46%, 25% and 26% of the mass of the fine particle samples, respectively. 'Crustal/soil dust', 'marine aerosols', 'nitrates' and 'road side dust' were the four factors identified for the coarse particle samples. On average natural origin dust contributed about 76% of the mass of the coarse particle samples. The contributions of the sources to the sample mass basically reflect the emission source characteristics of the sites. Secondary sulphates and nitrates were found to spread out evenly within each city. The average contribution of secondary nitrates to fine particles was found to be rather uniform in different seasons, rather than higher in winter as found in other studies. This could be due to the low humidity conditions in winter in most of the Australian cities which made the partitioning of the particle phase less favourable in the NH4NO3 equilibrium system. A linear relationship was found between the average contribution of marine aerosols and the distance of the site from the bay side. Wind erosion was found associated with higher contribution of crustal dust on average and episodes of elevated concentration of coarse particles in spring and summer. © 2007, Elsevier Ltd.
- ItemAssessing the impact of atmospheric stability on locally and remotely sourced aerosols at Richmond, Australia, using Radon-222(Elsevier, 2015-12-13) Crawford, J; Chambers, SD; Cohen, DD; Williams, AG; Griffiths, AD; Stelcer, EA flexible radon-based scheme for the classification of nocturnal stability regimes was used for the interpretation of daily-integrated PM2.5 aerosol observations collected at Richmond, Australia, between 2007 and 2011. Source fingerprint concentrations for the dominant locally and remotely sourced aerosols were analysed by nocturnal radon stability category to characterise the influences of day-to-day changes in daily integrated atmospheric mixing. The fingerprints analysed included: smoke, vehicle exhaust, secondary sulfate and aged industrial sulfur. The largest and most consistent stability influences were observed on the locally sourced pollutants. Based on a 5-year composite, daily integrated concentrations of smoke were almost a factor of 7 higher when nocturnal conditions were classed as “stable” than when they were “near neutral”. For vehicle emissions a factor of 4 was seen. However, when the winter months were considered in isolation, it was found that these factors increased to 11.5 (smoke) and 5.5 (vehicle emissions) for daily average concentrations. The changes in concentration of the remotely sourced pollutants with atmospheric stability were comparatively small and less consistent, probably as a result of the nocturnal inversion frequently isolating near-surface observations from non-local sources at night. A similar classification was performed using the commonly-adopted Pasquill–Gifford (PG) stability typing technique based on meteorological parameters. While concentrations of fingerprints associated with locally-sourced pollutants were also shown to be positively correlated with atmospheric stability using the PG classification, this technique was found to underestimate peak pollutant concentrations under stable atmospheric conditions by almost a factor of 2. © 2015, Elsevier Ltd.
- ItemAtmospheric iron deposition: global distribution, variability, and human perturbations(Annual Reviews, 2009-01) Mahowald, NM; Engelstaedter, S; Luo, CW; Sealy, A; Artaxo, P; Benitez-Nelson, C; Bonnet, S; Chen, YS; Chuang, PY; Cohen, DD; Dulac, F; Herut, B; Johansen, AM; Kubilay, N; Losno, R; Maenhaut, W; Paytan, A; Prospero, JM; Shank, LM; Siefert, RLAtmospheric inputs of iron to the open ocean are hypothesized to modulate ocean biogeochemistry. This review presents an integration of available observations of atmospheric iron and iron deposition, and also covers bioavailable iron distributions. Methods for estimating temporal variability in ocean deposition over the recent past are reviewed. Desert dust iron is estimated to represent 95% of the global atmospheric iron cycle, and combustion sources of iron are responsible for the remaining 5%. Humans may be significantly perturbing desert dust (up to 50%). The sources of bioavailable iron ire less well understood than those of iron, partly because we do not know what speciation of the iron is bioavailable. Bioavailable iron can derive from atmospheric processing of relatively insoluble desert dust iron or from direct emissions of soluble iron from combustion sources. These results imply that humans could be substantially impacting it-on and bioavailable iron deposition to ocean regions, but there are large uncertainties in our understanding. © 2009, Annual Reviews
- ItemThe Australian National Tandem for Applied Research- ANTARES, it's 20 years old(Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE), 2009-11-25) Cohen, DDThe 10MV ANTARES Tandem accelerator at ANSTO has now been in Australia for 20 years. It arrived from Rutgers University at the Sydney container terminal on 12 September 1089 and was brought to Lucas Heights and loaded, by two cranes, onto four stanchions already in place on a concrete slab on 14 September 1989. The building was then completed around the accelerator. The tank on ANTARES was part of the FN1, the first FN series accelerator built by High Voltage Engineering in the mid 1960s. The accelerator and several beamlines were purchased from Rutgers for the meagre sum of US$250,000. Since September 1989, the accelerator has been completely revamped and brought into the 21st century with 3 ion sources, 3 state of the art accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) beamlines, a heavy ion recoil time of flight (RToF) beamline and a world class high energy heavy ion microprobe. The current replacement value of the accelerator is over $12M. This talk will review the technical and scientific achievements over the past 20 tears, current programs and future directions of this key piece of ANSTO capital equipment and acknowledge many of its past users and contributors. © 2009 AINSE
- ItemBaseline characterisation of source contributions to daily-integrated PM2.5 observations at Cape Grim using Radon-222(Elsevier, 2018-08-20) Crawford, J; Chambers, SD; Cohen, DD; Williams, AG; Atanacio, AJWe discuss 15 years (2000–2015) of daily-integrated PM2.5 samples from the Cape Grim Station. Ion beam analysis and positive matrix factorisation are used to identify six source-type fingerprints: fresh sea salt (57%); secondary sulfate (14%); smoke (13%); aged sea salt (12%); soil dust (2.4%); and industrial metals (1.5%). An existing hourly radon-only baseline selection technique is modified for use with the daily-integrated observations. Results were not significantly different for days on which >20 hours were below the baseline radon threshold compared with days when all 24 hours satisfied the baseline criteria. This relaxed daily baseline criteria increased the number of samples for analysis by almost a factor of two. Two radon baseline thresholds were tested: historic (100 mBq m−3), and revised (50 mBq m−3). Median aerosol concentrations were similar for both radon thresholds, but maximum values were higher for the 100 mBq m−3 threshold. Back trajectories indicated more interaction with southern Australia and the Antarctic coastline for air masses selected with the 100 mBq m−3 threshold. Radon-only baseline selection using the 50 mBq m−3 threshold was more selective of minimal terrestrial influence than a similar recent study using wind direction and back trajectories. The ratio of concentrations between terrestrial and baseline days for the primary sources soil, smoke and industrial metals was 3.4, 2.6, and 5.5, respectively. Seasonal cycles of soil dust had a summer maximum and winter minimum. Seasonal cycles of smoke were of similar amplitude for terrestrial and baseline events, but of completely different shape: peaking in autumn and spring for terrestrial events, compared to summer for baseline conditions. Seasonal cycles of industrial metals had a summer maximum and winter minimum. A significant fraction of the Cape Grim baseline smoke and industrial metal contributions appeared to be derived from long-term transport (>3 weeks since last terrestrial influence). Crown Copyright © 2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
- ItemA bright future for accelerator science at ANSTO(Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE), 2009-11-25) Hotchkis, MAC; Child, DP; Cohen, DD; Dodson, JR; Fink, D; Garton, D; Hua, Q; Ionescu, M; Jacobsen, GE; Levchenko, VA; Mifsud, C; Siegele, R; Smith, AM; Williams, AG; Winkler, SIn the May 2009 budget, the Federal Government announced funding of $25m to ANSTO through the Education Investment Fund, to build state-of-the-art applied accelerator science facilities, by upgrading and replacing existing facilities and laboratories at ANSTO. Currently, ANSTO's researchers, jointly with researchers from all 37 Australian universities, plus other agencies such as CSIRO, government departments and local government bodies, and overseas collaborators and customers, use ANSTO's accelerator facilities for analysis of a wide range of materials, predominantly by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA). There are >100 external users of those facilities every year. © 2009 AINSE
- ItemCalculated K, L, and M shell X-ray line intensities for light ion impact on selected targets from Z=6 to 100(Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 2011-09-01) Crawford, J; Cohen, DD; Doherty, G; Atanacio, AJA computer code to calculate the K, L, and M α, β and γ X-ray line intensities, KLMabgRatios, is described together with the input tables used to calculate these intensities for light ion bombardment of targets with atomic numbers from Z=6 to 100. The KLMabgRatios program was written with the main aim of updating the 1980’s data files used up till now (Clayton AAEC M113/1986), with more recent experimental and theoretical datasets published in the last 2 years or so. Preferred recommended K, L and M X-ray line intensities for light ion impact on selected targets for atomic numbers between Z=6 and 100 are given for 8 K lines, 17 L lines and 22 M lines as well as their corresponding ωK, ωL and ωM total shell fluorescence yields. In addition a program, wexplore, has been written to carry out Gaussian fits to experimental K, L and M X-ray spectra to better determine L and M X-ray production subshell cross sections for light ion bombardment. A section on the use of this wexplore program is also included in this report.
- ItemCan IBA techniques quantify the contributions of deserts, winter domestic heating and coal fired power stations to the ambient fine particle air pollution concentrations in the Sydney Basin?(Australian National University, 2012-04-12) Cohen, DD; Stelcer, E; Garton, D; Atanacio, AJANSTO has used accelerator based ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques to characterise, fingerprint and source fine particles in and around Australia since the early 1990's. This large database covering many years allows us to now look quantitatively at fine particle sources, including automobiles, smoke, sea spray, soils and industrial emissions. This talk will discuss the accelerator based IBA techniques and how they are used to identify the contributions of windblown soils, wood heating and coal fired power stations to ambient air pollution in the Sydney Basin between 1998 and the present.