Browsing by Author "Bird, JR"
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- ItemAccelerator mass spectrometry ultrasensitive analysis for global science(CRC Press, 1998-03-25) Tuniz, C; Kutschera, W; Fink, D; Herzog, GF; Bird, JRThis extensive undertaking, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, conducts an elaborate and comprehensive summary of one of the foremost catalysts of progress in scientific research. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), an innovative analytical technique, measures rare atoms at unprecedented levels of sensitivity, revolutionizing the science of radiocarbon dating and accessing new natural radioisotopes as environmental tracers and chronometers. This book demonstrates how AMS is applied in the studies of extraterrestrial materials, the earth sciences, the future of the global environment, and the history of mankind. This compendium also highlights the significant impact of AMS on several fields of scientific investigation, spurring remarkable studies in global climate change, ancient artifacts, pollution, nuclear safeguards, geochronology, and materials characterization. The myriad of sample types and variety of applications in this examination include: Meteorites from Mars Ancient air trapped in Antarctic ice The Shroud of Turin The dating of human bones The colonization of the Americas and Australia Ancient rock art The crown of Charlemagne Cancerogenic effects of cooked meat The consequences of the Chernobyl accident The role of aluminum in Alzheimer's Disease This unique edition has compiled the diverse set of scientific literature into a single volume, suitable as a text or resource on the major AMS-related outcomes, issues, and methods.
- ItemThe ANTARES AMS Centre at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories(Elsevier, 1994-06-03) Tuniz, C; Fink, D; Hotchkis, MAC; Jacobsen, GE; Lawson, EM; Smith, AM; Bird, JR; Boldeman, JWThe ANTARES AMS facility at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories is operational and AMS measurements of 14C and 26Al are performed routinely. Measurement programs for a variety of other long-lived cosmogenic radioisotopes are being implemented on specialised beamlines. The overall aim of the facility is to establish an AMS centre for advanced studies in global change and Quaternary science. Other projects in biomedicine and nuclear safeguards monitoring are also being developed. © 1994 Elsevier B.V.
- ItemBIBLIO - a bibliographic index system(Australian Atomic Energy Commission, 1978-10) Cawley, RJ; Bird, JRGeneral purpose system for recording and searching an index of information, using interactive computer techniques, is described. Normal language nomenclature is used and searches can be made on any character or combination of characters within specified fields of information. The use of the system is illustrated with examples from several applications.
- ItemThe characterisation of Melanesian obsidian sources and artefacts using the proton induced gamma-ray emission (PIGME) technique(Australian Atomic Energy Commission, 1981-09) Bird, JR; Ambrose, WR; Russell, LH; Scott, MDProton induced gamma-ray emission (PIGME) has been used to determine F, Na and Al concentrations in obsidian from known locations in Melanesia and to relate artefacts from this region to such sources. The PIGME technique is a fast non-destructive and accurate method for determining these three elements with essentially no special sample preparation. The measuring technique is described and results are listed for sources chiefly in the Papua New Guinea region. Their classification is discussed in terms of groups which are distinguishable by the PIGME method. Over 700 artefact results are listed; these show the occurrence of an additional group that is not geographically identified.
- ItemCompilation of keV neutron capture gamma rays in the mass range a=40-70(Australian Atomic Energy Commission, 1969-10) Allen, BJ; Bird, JR; Kenny, MJkeV neutron capture gamma ray spectra have been measured for eleven elements in the mass range A=40 to 70 using lithium drifted germanium detectors. Averaged or resolved resonance spectra were obtained for neutrons in the energy range 5 - 100 keV, produced by a pulsed Van de Graaff accelerator. A compilation of the results for each element is given together with thermal capture and (d,p) data. Gamma ray spectra are presented and major features of thermal capture and keV results are shown in decay schemes.
- ItemComputer analysis of results as they are obtained from a nuclear experiment(Australian Atomic Energy Commission, 1972-01) Bird, JR; Scott, MDThe equivalence of mass and energy and the conservation of momentum can be demonstrated by measuring the energy of gamma rays emitted when positrons are annihilated. This measurement can be made using a small computer for data storage and analysis and for equipment control.
- ItemDating, mass spectrometry and nuclear science: a proposed new facility at Lucas Heights.(Australian Atomic Energy Commission, 1984-01) Bird, JR; Airey, PL; Boldeman, JW; Cohen, DD; Duerden, PIt is proposed that the AAEC install a high-technology, multi-user facility based on an 8 MV tandem accelerator to provide new capabilities in the following fields: (a) Radioisotope dating and ultra-sensitive trace element determination in isotope hydrology, salinity, sedimentology, erosion, actinide transport and materials studies. (b) Physics studies for the development of methods of applying nuclear materials safeguards, the provision of neutron dosimetry standards, measurements of precision data for radiation interactions, and the development of new methods for radioisotope dating. (c) Development of nuclear and ion beam techniques with applications in occupational health, biomedicine, materials modification, industrial problems and other fields. (d) Special requirements for accelerator-based radiocarbon dating of geological and archaeological samples not provided by other laboratories, coordinated by the Australian National University. These primary objectives include collaborative projects with the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics (BMR), the NSW Water Resources Commission (NSWWRC) and, under the auspices of the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science Engineering (AINSE), with Australian universities and other advanced educational institutions. Existing inter-regional programs in hydrology and neutron physics would also be served by the proposed facility making possible an expansion in the scope of joint projects with other countries in the SE Asian region.
- ItemThe measurement of partial capture cross sections for neutron energies above 10 keV(Australian Atomic Energy Commission, 1974-05) Broomhall, GJ; Kenny, MJ; Martin, PW; Bird, JRA large Nal detector has been used to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring partial capture cross sections for neutron energies from 10 to 100 keV. The pulsed neutron source was a 3 MeV accelerator and the 7Li(p,n) reaction with a time resolution of 3 to 4 ns and flight paths of 0.6 to 1.5 m. The experimental techniques are described, and illustrated by results for high energy transitions following capture in 48Ti, 56Fe, 56Ni and 207Pb.
- ItemPlans for AMS dating at Lucas Heights(Australian National University, 1991-01-29) Smith, AM; Bird, JR; Fink, D; Shying, M; Shahgholi, NA refurbished tandem accelerator has been installed at ANSTO for which a major role will be the use of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) techniques for measurements of 14C and other radioisotopes such as 10Be, 26Al, and 41Ca. The tandem accelerator is being upgraded with recent advances om accelerator technology aimed at achieving a terminal voltage of 10 MV and other performance features needed for first-rate AMS measurements. Dual ion sources will be used, one being a high intensity source which will be suitable for difficult isotopes such as 10Be, 26Al, and 41Ca, as will as for high throughput in radiocarbon measurements. The second source will be dedicated to high precision radiocarbon measurements with minimum cross-contamination and memory effects. Computer control systems will be used to facilitate high precision measurements on standards and unknowns. In the longer term it is hoped to develop a gas ion source to permit 14C measurements on Co2 obtained directly from field samples. The facility is expected to commence a measurement services in 1992. Sample preparation facilities are being developed concurrently at Lucas Heights and at other places such as radiocarbon laboratories, with special attention to minimising the possibility of contamination of samples at the ultra-low levels which can be measured by AMS (isotope ration of the order of 10-15).
- ItemPrompt nuclear analysis bibliography 1976.(Australian Atomic Energy Commission, 1978-05) Bird, JR; Campbell, BL; Cawley, RJA prompt nuclear analysis bibliography published in 1974 has been updated to include literature up to the end of 1976. The number of publications has more than doubled since mid-1973. The bibliography is now operated as a computer file and searches can be made on key words and parameters. Tables of references are given for each of the categories: backscattering, ion-ion, ion-gamma, ion-neutron, neutron-gamma, neutron-neutron and gamma-ray-induced reactions.
- ItemResponse functions of a germanium-sodium iodide detector system(Australian Atomic Energy Commission, 1967-04) Allen, BJ; Bird, JR; Engstrom, SA gamma ray spectrometer is described which uses a lithium drifted germanium diode or sodium iodide crystal as a central detector in conjunction with an annular segmented sodium iodide assembly. The system can operate as a total absorption, anticoincidence, or pair spectrometer and individual detectors may be used separately. Thus, the requirements of high resolution or high efficiency gamma ray spectroscopy can be met by suitable choice of mode of operation. The various modes of operation are compared and typical results given to illustrate their performance at a variety of gamma ray energies. A detailed analysis is given of the response of 30 cm3 Ge(Li) detector for gamma rays up to 17.6 MeV.
- ItemSimple ion implantation system for solar cells(Australian Atomic Energy Commission, 1982-11) Kenny, MJ; Bird, JR; Broe, HGA project has been initiated to investigate simple but effective ion implantation and pulsed annealing techniques for the fabrication of high efficiency silicon solar cells. In particular the method aims to eliminate the mass analyser and associated components from the implanter. A solid feed source is used in a clean ultra high vacuum environment to minimise impurities.