Browsing by Author "Ackerley, D"
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- ItemPaleoclimate data-model comparison and the role of climate forcings over the past 1500 Years(American Meterological Society, 2013-09-01) Phipps, SJ; McGregor, HV; Gergis, J; Gallant, AJE; Neukom, R; Stevenson, S; Ackerley, D; Brown, JR; Fischer, MJ; van Ommen, TDThe past 1500 years provide a valuable opportunity to study the response of the climate system to external forcings. However, the integration of paleoclimate proxies with climate modeling is critical to improving the understanding of climate dynamics. In this paper, a climate system model and proxy records are therefore used to study the role of natural and anthropogenic forcings in driving the global climate. The inverse and forward approaches to paleoclimate data-model comparison are applied, and sources of uncertainty are identified and discussed. In the first of two case studies, the climate model simulations are compared with multiproxy temperature reconstructions. Robust solar and volcanic signals are detected in Southern Hemisphere temperatures, with a possible volcanic signal detected in the Northern Hemisphere. The anthropogenic signal dominates during the industrial period. It is also found that seasonal and geographical biases may cause multiproxy reconstructions to overestimate the magnitude of the long-term preindustrial cooling trend. In the second case study, the model simulations are compared with a coral O-18 record from the central Pacific Ocean. It is found that greenhouse gases, solar irradiance, and volcanic eruptions all influence the mean state of the central Pacific, but there is no evidence that natural or anthropogenic forcings have any systematic impact on El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The proxy climate relationship is found to change over time, challenging the assumption of stationarity that underlies the interpretation of paleoclimate proxies. These case studies demonstrate the value of paleoclimate data-model comparison but also highlight the limitations of current techniques and demonstrate the need to develop alternative approaches. © 2013, American Meteorological Society.
- ItemSolar and volcanic forcing of the Southern Hemisphere climate over the past 1500 years(Past Global Changes, 2013-02-13) Phipps, SJ; Ackerley, D; Brown, JR; Curran, MAJ; Fischer, MJ; Gallant, A; Gergis, J; McGregor, HV; Neukom, R; Plummer, C; Stevenson, S; van Ommen, TDThe past 1500 years provides a valuable opportunity to study the role of external forcings in driving the global climate. Significant changes have taken place within the climate system over this period, and proxy data that records these changes covers a wide geographical area and has high temporal resolution. Natural and anthropogenic forcings are also reasonably well constrained. While previous detection and attribution studies have found a significant role of volcanic eruptions in driving the pre-industrial Northern Hemisphere climate, the drivers of the Southern Hemisphere climate are much less well understood. Here, the CSIRO Mk3L climate system model is used to simulate the global climate of the past 1500 years. Different combinations of natural and anthropogenic forcings are applied, including changes in the Earth’s orbital parameters, solar irradiance, volcanic emissions and anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The simulations are then compared with a multi-proxy reconstruction of Southern Hemisphere temperature. We find strong solar and volcanic influences on the Southern Hemisphere climate during the pre-industrial period, with the anthropogenic signal becoming increasingly dominant after 1850 CE. However, the results are sensitive to the specific reconstructions of solar and volcanic activity that are used to drive the model. The choice of volcanic reconstruction is particularly critical, and we find that the dating of major eruptions can impact significantly upon the agreement between the model and the proxy record. If we are to learn all that we can from the climate of recent millennia, a critical challenge is therefore to develop better reconstructions of past climatic forcings − particularly volcanic eruptions.