Browsing by Author "Abraham, DP"
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- ItemConsequences of long-term water exposure for bulk crystal structure and surface composition/chemistry of nickel-rich layered oxide materials for Li-ion batteries(Elsevier, 2020-06-10) Andersen, HL; Cheung, EA; Avdeev, M; Maynard-Casely, HE; Abraham, DP; Sharma, NWater exposure of layered nickel-rich transition metal oxide electrodes, widely used in high-energy lithium-ion batteries, has detrimental effects on the electrochemical performance, which complicates electrode handling and prevents implementation of environmentally benign aqueous processing procedures. Elucidating the degradation mechanisms in play may help rationally mitigate/circumvent key challenges. Here, the bulk structural consequences of long-term (>2.5 years) deuterated water (D2O) exposure of intercalation materials with compositions LixNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523) and LixNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 (NCM811) are studied by neutron powder diffraction (NPD). Detailed inspection of the NPD data reveals gradual formation of a secondary crystalline phase in all exposed samples, not previously reported for this system. This unknown phase forms faster in liquid- compared to vapor-exposed compounds. Structural modelling of the NPD data shows a stable level of Li/Ni anti-site defects and does not indicate any significant changes in lattice parameters or hydrogen-lithium (D+/Li+) exchange in the structure. Consequently, the secondary phase formation must take place via transformation rather than modification of the parent material. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data indicate formation of LiHCO3/Li2CO3 at the surface and a Li-deficient oxide in the sub-surface region of the pristine compounds, and the presence of adsorbed water and transition metal hydroxides at the exposed sample surfaces. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.